BUERGER'S DISEASE
BURNS
Buerger's disease
A rare disorder, also
called thromboangiitis obliterans, in
which the arteries, nerves, and veins
in the legs, and sometimes those in the
arms, become severely inflamed. Blood
supply to the toes and fingers becomes
cut off, eventually causing
gangrene.
The disease is most common in men
under the age of 45 who smoke heavily.
bulimia
An illness that is characterized
by bouts of overeating usually followed
by self-induced vomiting or excessive
laxative use. Most sufferers are girls or
women between the ages of 15 and 30.
In some cases, the symptoms coexist
with those of
anorexia nervosa.
Repeat-
ed vomiting can lead to dehydration and
loss of potassium, causing weakness
and cramps, and tooth damage due to
the gastric acid in vomit. Treatment
includes supervision and regulation of
eating habits, and sometimes,
antide-
pressant drugs
and/or
psychotherapy.
bulk-forming agent
A substance that
makes stools less liquid by absorbing
water: a type of
antidiarrhoeal drug
.
bulla
A large air- or fluid-filled bubble,
usually in the lungs or skin. Lung bullae
in young adults are usually
congenital
.
In later life, lung bullae develop in
patients with
emphysema.
Skin bullae
are large, fluid-filled
blisters
with a var-
iety of causes, including the bullous
disease
pemphigus.
bumetanide
A powerful,
short-acting
loop
diuretic drug
used to treat oedema
(fluid retention) resulting from
heart
failure
,
nephrotic syndrom e
, or liver
cir-
rhosis
. It may be given by injection for
emergency
treatment
of
pulmonary
oedem a
. Adverse effects can include
rash and muscle pain.
bundle branch block
See
heart block
.
bunion
A thickened pad of tissue or a
fluid-filled bursa overlying a deformed
big-toe joint. The underlying cause is
an abnormal outward projection of the
big toe called a
hallux valgus
. Small
bunions are remedied by wearing well-
fitting shoes and a special toe pad to
straighten the big toe. Large bunions
may require surgery to realign the joint
and relieve the pressure.
buphthalmos
A large, prominent eye-
ball in an infant as a result of increased
pressure inside the eyeball due to con-
genital
glaucoma
. Treatment of the
condition usually involves surgery to
reduce the pressure,
otherwise the
child's sight is progressively damaged.
bupivacaine
A long-acting local anaes-
thetic often used as a
nerve block
,
particularly during
labour
and in
epidur-
al anaesthesia
and
spinal anaesthesia
.
Side effects of bupivacaine are uncom-
mon, but high doses may cause blood
pressure to fall excessively
.
buproprion
Also known as amfebuta-
mone, a drug used, in combination with
self-help measures, as an aid to stop-
ping smoking. Taken as tablets, the drug
has a number of side effects, including
dry mouth, gastrointestinal disturban-
ces, and headache. Some people may
find impairment in their ability to
undertake activities such as driving.
Burkitt's lymphoma
A cancer of lymph
tissues that is characterized by tumours
within the jaw and/or abdomen. It is
confined almost exclusively to children
living in low-lying, moist, tropical regions
of Africa and New Guinea.
Anticancer
drugs
or
radiotherapy
give complete or
partial cure in about 80 per cent of
cases. (See also
lymphoma.)
burns
Tissue damage resulting from
contact with heat, electricity, chemicals
or radiation. Burns are classified accor-
ding to the severity of damage to the
skin. A 1st-degree burn causes reddening
B
BURNS
A 1st-degree
bum affects
the epidermis
A 2nd-degree
burn extends
to the dermis
A 3rd-degree
burn extends
to the fatty
layer
A 3rd-degree
burn may also
extend to the
muscle layer
CLASSIFICATION OF BURNS
101
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