CACHEXIA
CALAMINE
cachexia
A condition of severe weight
loss and decline in health caused by a
serious underlying disease, such as can-
cer or tuberculosis, or by starvation.
cadaver
A dead human body used as a
source of transplant organs or for
anatomical study and dissection.
cadmium poisoning
The toxic effects of
cadmium, a tin-like metal. Poisoning due
to the inhalation of cadmium dust or
fumes is an industrial hazard. Short-term
exposure may lead to
pneumonitis.
Ex-
posure over a long period can lead to
urinary tract
calculi
(stones),
kidney fail-
ure
, or
em physem a
. Eating vegetables
grown in cadmium-rich soil, or food or
drink stored in cadmium-lined contain-
ers, can also cause poisoning.
caecum
The first section of the large
intestine, joining the
ileum
(the end of
the small intestine) to the
colon.
The
appendix
projects from the caecum.
(See also
digestive system
).
caesarean
section
An operation to
deliver a baby from the uterus through
a horizontal or, less commonly, a vertical
incision in the abdomen. A caesarean
section is performed when it is difficult
or dangerous to deliver a baby vaginally.
The procedure is performed using
epidu-
ral
or general
anaesthesia.
café au lait spots
Patches of coffee-
coloured skin that may occur anywhere
on the body. Café au lait spots are usu-
ally oval in shape and may measure
several centimetres across. Generally, a
few spots are not significant; larger num-
bers may be a sign of
neurofibromatosis
.
caffeine
A
stimulant drug
found in cof-
fee, tea, cocoa, and cola drinks. Caffeine
reduces fatigue, improves concentration,
makes the heart pump blood faster, and
has a diuretic effect. Large quantities
may produce side effects such as agita-
tion and tremors. A regular high intake
may lead to increased
tolerance
and
wifodrawal
symptoms, such as headaches
and tiredness, after a few hours without
caffeine. Caffeine is used in some drug
preparations, particularly in combination
with
analgesics
and with
ergotamine
in
preventive treatments for migraine.
caisson disease
An alternative term for
decompression sickness
.
calamine
A preparation of zinc oxide
and iron oxide applied as an ointment,
lotion, or dusting powder to relieve skin
irritation and itching. Calamine may be
combined with a local anaesthetic (see
anaesthesia, local
), a
corticosteroid drug
,
or an
antihistamine drug
.
Nurse
Oxygen
mask
CAESAREAN SECTION
Surgeon
Birth
partner
103
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