CAPILLARY
CARBOHYDRATES
“illusion of doubles'', the syndrome is
seen
most
frequently
in
paranoid
schizophrenia,
but also occurs in organ-
ic brain disorders (see
brain syndrome,
organic)
and
affective disorders.
capillary
Any of the vessels that carry
blood between the smallest arteries, or
arterioles, and the smallest veins, or ven-
ules (see
circulatory system
). Capillaries
form a fine network throughout the
body's organs and tissues. Their thin
walls are permeable and allow blood and
cells to exchange constituents such as
oxygen, glucose, carbon dioxide, and
water (see
respiration
). Capillaries open
and close to blood flow according to
the requirements of different organs.
The opening and closing of skin capil-
laries helps to regulate
temperature.
A direct blow to the body may rupture
the thin capillary walls, causing bleeding
under the surface of the skin, which in
turn
causes
swelling
and
bruising.
Increasing age, high doses of
cortico-
steroid drugs
, and
scurvy
(vitamin C
deficiency) make capillaries more frag-
ile; a tendency to
purpura
(small areas
of bleeding under the skin) may develop.
CAPILLARY NETWORK
SECTION
capping, dental See
crown, dental.
capsule An anatomical structure en-
closing an organ or body part: for
example, capsules enclose the liver, kid-
neys, joints, and eye lenses.
The term capsule is also used to de-
scribe a soluble, elongated shell, usually
made of gelatine, containing a drug to be
taken by mouth. The coating of some cap-
sules prevents a drug that may have an
irritant effect being released into the
stomach, or allows a drug to be released
slowly so it can be taken less frequently.
capsulitis
Inflammation of a
capsule
around an organ or joint, for example as
occurs in
frozen shoulder
.
captopril
A drug belonging to the cate-
gory
ACE inhibitors
, which are used in
the treatment of
hypertension
,
heart fail-
ure
, and diabetic
nephropathy
.
caput
The Latin word for head. The
term is commonly used to refer to the
caput succedaneum, a soft, temporary
swelling in the scalp of newborn babies,
caused
by
pressure
during
labour.
Caput is also used to refer to the face,
skull, and associated organs, to the ori-
gin of a muscle, or to any enlarged
extremity, such as the caput femoris,
the head of the femur (thigh bone).
carbamazepine
An
anticonvulsant drug,
chemically related to the
tricyclic anti-
depressants
. Carbamazepine is mainly
used in the long-term treatment of
epi-
lepsy
. It is also used to treat
neuralgia
and
psychological disorders, such as
mania.
carbaryl
An insecticide used to treat
head
lice
and
crab lice
. Carbaryl is
applied topically as a liquid, avoiding
contact with the eyes or broken skin.
carbenoxolone An
ulcer-healing drug
used to treat oesophageal inflammation
and ulceration. A gel containing carben-
oxolone is used to relieve mouth ulcers,
carbimazole A drug that is used to treat
h}sperth}noidism
(overactivity of the thy-
roid gland). Carbimazole is slow to take
effect, so
beta-blockers
may be given to
relieve symptoms in the interim. Long-
term treatment with carbimazole may
reduce production of blood cells, so
regular blood counts are required. Ad-
verse effects may include headaches,
dizziness, joint pain, and nausea,
carbohydrates
A group of compounds
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen, which supply the body with its
main source of energy. Carbohydrates
are found in fruits, cereals, and root
crops and fall into 2 groups. These are
available carbohydrates, which are meta-
bolized into glucose for the body's use,
and unavailable carbohydrates, such as
cellulose, which cannot be broken down
by digestive
enzymes
and make up the
bulk of dietary fibre (see
fibre, dietary
).
107
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