CARDIOTOCOGRAPHY
CAROTID ARTERY
the hand, are applied to the lower breast-
bone until trained help arrives. Both
these measures are used to restore
blood circulation to the brain. Brain
damage is likely if the brain is starved of
oxygen for more than 3-4 minutes.
cardiotocography
See
fetal heart mon-
itoring.
cardiovascular
Pertaining to the heart
and blood vessels.
cardiovascular
disorders
Disorders
of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
circulation (see
heart disorders; arteries,
disorders of; veins, disorders
of).
cardiovascular surgery
The branch
of surgery concerned with the heart and
blood vessels. Cardiovascular surgery
includes operations to prevent or repair
damage caused, for example, by con-
genital heart disease (see
heart disease,
congenital), atherosclerosis,
or a
myocar-
dial infarction
(heart attack). Procedures
include
heart valve surgery, coronary
artery bypass,
and
heart transplant.
cardioversion
An alternative name for
defibrillation
.
carditis
A general term for inflammation
of any part of the heart or its linings.
There are 3 types of carditis:
myocarditis
(inflammation of the heart muscle),
which is usually caused by a viral infec-
tion;
endocarditis
(inflammation of the
internal lining of the heart), which is
usually due to a bacterial infection; and
pericarditis
(inflammation of the outer
covering of the heart), which is usually
due to a viral or bacterial infection but
may be associated with a
myocardial
infarction
or an autoimmune disorder,
such as
systemic lupus erythematosus.
caries, dental
Tooth decay; the gradual
erosion of enamel (the covering of the
tooth) and dentine (the substance be-
neath the enamel). Initial decay usually
occurs on the grinding surfaces of the
back teeth and areas around the gum
line. The main cause is
plaque,
a sticky
substance consisting of food deposits,
saliva by-products, and bacteria that
collects on the teeth. The breakdown of
food deposits by bacteria creates an
acid that eats into the enamel to form
cavities. Unchecked decay spreads to the
dentine, and as the cavity enlarges, bac-
teria may invade and destroy the pulp
at the tooth's core. Advanced decay
causes toothache and bad breath.
Treatment consists of drilling away the
area of decay and filling the cavity (see
filling, dental).
In advanced decay, it may
be necessary to remove the infected
pulp (see
extraction, dental).
Water
fluoridation
and the use of fluo-
ride toothpaste helps prevent caries. The
risk of caries is also reduced by cutting
sugar consumption, practising good
oral
hygiene,
and visiting the dentist regularly.
carotenaemia
A harmless condition in
which the blood level of the orange pig-
ment
carotene
, found in carrots and
other vegetables, is excessively high.
The condition may cause temporary yel-
lowing of the skin.
carotene
An orange pigment found in
carrots, tomatoes, and leafy green veg-
etables. The most important form, called
beta-carotene, is an
antioxidant
that is
converted in the intestines into
vitamin
A,
which is essential for vision and the
health of the skin and other organs.
Excessive intake of foods containing
carotene may result in
carotenaemia
.
carotid artery
Any of the main arteries
of the neck and head. There are 2 com-
mon carotid arteries (left and right),
each of which divides into
2
main
branches (internal and external).
The left carotid arises from the
aorta
and runs up the neck on the left side of
the
trachea
(windpipe). The right carotid
arises from the subclavian artery (which
branches off the aorta) and follows a
similar route on the right side of the
CAROTID ARTERY
ill
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