CAUDA EQUINA
CELECOXIB
C
Infection, usually from contact with cat's
faeces, is not generally serious but has
serious consequences if a woman is in-
fected during pregnancy. Cat faeces may
also carry eggs of the cat roundworm, a
possible cause of
toxocariasis.
Rarely,
a larva from an ingested roundworm egg
migrates to and lodges in an eye, causing
deterioration of vision or even blindness.
Children who have been playing in sand
or soil contaminated by cat faeces are
most commonly affected. Other cat-relat-
ed disorders in humans include
tinea
(ringworm), fungal infections of the skin,
bites from cat fleas, and allergic reac-
tions to dander that may cause
asthma
or
urticaria
. Diseases from cats can be
avoided by good hygiene, veterinary
care for animals that are ill, and regular
worming and flea treatment of cats.
cauda equina
A “spray'' of nerve roots
resembling a horse's tail that descends
from the lower
spinal cord
and occupies
the lower 3rd of the spinal canal.
caudal
Relating to the lower end of the
spine.
Caudal means “of the tail”.
caudal block
A type of
nerve block,
in
which a local anaesthetic is injected
into the lower part of the spinal canal.
Caudal block may be used for
obstetric
and gynaecological procedures.
cauliflower ear
A painful, swollen dis-
tortion of the pinna (ear flap) resulting
from blows or friction that have caused
bleeding in the soft
cartilage.
Immediate
treatment after an injury is with ice-
packs to reduce the swelling. In severe
cases, a doctor may drain blood from
the ear and apply a pressure bandage.
causalgia
A persistent, burning pain,
usually in an arm or leg, most often as a
result of injury to a nerve by a deep cut,
limb
fracture
, or gunshot wound. The
skin overlying the painful area may be
red and tender, or blue, cold, and clammy.
Causalgia may be aggravated by light
sensations, such as touch, or emotional
factors. In some cases, treatment with
antidepressant drugs
or
anticonvulsant
drugs
may be effective. A few people
benefit from
sympathectomy
, an opera-
tion in which nerves are severed.
caustic
A term used for any substance
that has a burning or corrosive action
on body tissues or has a burning taste.
Caustic agents such as silver nitrate are
used to destroy warts.
cauterization
The application of a heat-
ed instrument to destroy tissues, to stop
bleeding, or to promote healing, used
in conditions such as
haemorrhoids
and
cervical erosion.
Cauterization has been
largely replaced by
electrocoagulation.
cavernous sinus thrombosis
Block-
age of a venous
sinus
(a channel for
venous blood deep in the skull behind
an eye socket) by a
thrombus
(abnormal
blood clot). The condition is usually a
complication of a bacterial infection in an
area drained by the veins entering the
sinus. Such infections include
cellulitis
of the face, infections of the mouth, eye,
or middle ear,
sinusitis,
and
septicaemia.
Symptoms include severe headache,
high fever, pain and loss of sensation in
and above the affected eye, and
propto-
sis
(protrusion of the eyeball). Vision
may become blurred and eye move-
ments paralysed due to pressure on the
optic nerve
and other cranial nerves.
Treatment with
antibiotic drugs
and
anti-
coagulant drugs
can save vision. Left
untreated, blindness results, and the
infection may prove fatal.
cavity, dental
A hole in a tooth, com-
monly caused by dental caries (see
caries, dental
).
CD
4
count
A blood test used to monitor
HIV infection
and
AIDS.
The procedure
counts the number of CD4
lymphocytes
(white blood cells responsible for fight-
ing infection) in a blood sample. CD4
lymphocytes are destroyed by HIV, and
reduced levels of these cells indicate
the progression of HIV and the eventual
development of AIDS.
cefaclor
A common antibiotic, one of
the
cephalosporin drugs.
cefadroxil
A
cephalosporin drug
, used
to treat bacterial infections.
cefalexin
A
cephalosporin drug
, used to
treat bacterial infections.
cefotaxime
A
cephalosporin drug
, used
to treat bacterial infections.
cefuroxime
A
cephalosporin drug
, used
to treat bacterial infections.
celecoxib
A
COX-2 inhibitor drug
(a
type of
nonsteroidal anti-inflam m atory
drug
) used to relieve the pain and
inflammation of
rheu m atoid arthritis
114
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