CERTIFICATION
CERVICAL EROSION
called the corpus callosum carries nerve
signals between the
2
hemispheres.
The outer surface layer of each hemi-
sphere is the cerebral cortex - the “grey
matter'', where much of the sensory
information from organs such as the eyes
and ears is processed. Specific sensory
processing
takes
place
in
separate
regions. For example, visual perception
is located in a part of the occipital lobe
called the visual cortex.
CEREBRUM
Frontal
lobe ^
Parietal
lobe
Temporal ,
lobe
Cerebrum
Occipital lobe
Cerebellum
Brain stem
The cortex also contains "motor" areas
concerned with the initiation of signals
for movement by the skeletal muscles.
Linked to the sensory and motor areas
of the cortex are association areas,
which integrate information from vari-
ous senses and also perform functions
such as comprehension and recognition,
memory storage and recall, thought and
decision making. Some of these cortical
functions are localized to one “domi-
nant'' hemisphere (the left in almost all
right-handed and many left-handed peo-
ple). Two clearly defined areas in the
dominant hemisphere are Wernicke's
area, responsible for the comprehen-
sion of words, and Broca's area, which
is concerned with language expression.
certification
An old term for procedures
to commit a person to be compulsorily
detained for mental health treatment.
cerumen
The
substance
commonly
called
earwax.
cervical
Relating to the neck or to the
cervix.
cervical cancer
See
cervix, cancer of.
cervical dysplasia
Changes in the sur-
face cells of the
cervix
that may become
cancerous. There are 3 grades of cervical
dysplasia, mild, moderate, and severe,
based on the severity of the changes seen
in cells obtained from a
cervical smear
test
.
Abnormalities can also be classified
as grades of
cervical intraepithelial neo-
plasia
.
In mild dysplasia, abnormal cells
may return to a normal state without
treatment; severe dysplasia, left untreat-
ed, may progress to cervical cancer (see
cervix, cancer of
).
The cause of cervical dysplasia is not
known, but risk factors include smoking
and unprotected sex at an early age or
with many partners. Treatment depends
on the severity of the condition. For mild
or moderate dysplasia,
laser treatment,
freezing, or
colposcopy
may be used to
destroy the abnormal cells. Alternative-
ly, the cells may be surgically removed.
If the dysplasia is severe, an area of the
cervix is removed (see
cone biopsy).
cervical ero sio n A condition affecting
the
cervix
in which a layer of mucus-
forming cells more characteristic of
those found in the inner lining of the
cervix appear on its outside surface. The
eroded cervix has a fragile, reddened
area on the surface. Usually, there are
no symptoms, but some women experi-
ence bleeding at unexpected times and
may have a vaginal discharge.
Cervical erosion may be present from
birth. Other causes include injury to the
cervix during labour and long-term use
of
oral contraceptives
. The condition is
often detected during a routine
cervical
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