CERVIX
CHAGAS’ DISEASE
ophthalmia
or, less commonly,
pneum o-
nia
due to
chlamydial infection.
Treatment is with
antibiotics
or with
antiviral drugs.
If symptoms persist, the
inflamed area of cervix may be cauter-
ized by
electrocoagulation, cryotherapy
or
laser treatment.
cervix A small, cylindrical organ compris-
ing the lower part and neck of the
uterus
and separating the body and cavity of
the uterus from the
vagina.
The fibrous
and smooth muscle tissue of the cervix
creates a form of sphincter, which can
stretch during pregnancy and childbirth.
The cervical canal runs through the
cervix and allows the passage of blood
during
menstruation
and of sperm from
the vagina into the uterus; it also forms
part of the birth canal during childbirth.
After puberty, mucus is secreted from
the glandular cells in the canal to assist
sperm entry into the upper cervix.
CERVIX
cervix, cancer of One of the most com-
mon cancers affecting women worldwide.
Cancer of the
cervix
has well-defined
precancerous stages (see
cervical dys-
plasia)
that can be detected by a
cervical
sm ear test,
allowing, in many cases, early
treatment and a complete cure. Un-
treated, cancer of the cervix may spread
to the organs in the
pelvis.
There are 2 main types of cervical can-
cer: the squamous type is the most
common and is thought to be associated
with the human papilloma virus, acquired
during sexual intercourse. Factors that
predispose to this type of cancer are
smoking,
starting to have sex at an early
age, and having many sexual partners.
The second, rarer, type of cervical cancer,
adenocarcinoma, sometimes occurs in
women who have never had sexual
intercourse. Its causes are unclear.
Symptoms do not develop until the
condition is advanced, when there is
vaginal bleeding or a bloodstained dis-
charge at unexpected times, and pain if
the cancer has spread within the pelvis.
Following an abnormal smear test
result,
colposcopy
or a
cone biopsy
may
be carried out to diagnose the condition.
A localized early cancer may be destroyed
by
electrocoagulation, diathermy, laser
treatment,
or
cryosurgery.
If the cancer
has spread into the cervical canal, a cone
biopsy may be sufficient to remove all
the diseased tissue. In more advanced
cases affecting the pelvic organs,
radio-
therapy
may be given. Radical surgery,
in which the bladder, vagina, cervix,
uterus, and rectum are removed, may
be recommended in certain cases,
cervix, disorders of The
cervix
is sus-
ceptible to injuries, infections, tumours,
and other conditions. Minor injury to
the cervix may occur during childbirth,
particularly if labour is prolonged. Per-
sistent damage to muscle fibres as a
result of injury may lead to
cervical
incompetence. Cervical erosion
is a con-
dition in which mucus-secreting cells
form on the outside of the cervix.
The most common cervical infections
are sexually transmitted, such as
gon-
orrhoea,
chlamydial
infections
,
and
trichomoniasis.
Viral infections of the
cervix include those due to the human
papilloma virus and the herpes simplex
virus (see
warts, genital; herpes
,
genital).
Poljsps
are noncancerous growths on the
cervix. Cancerous growths (see
cervix;
cancer of)
are preceded by changes in the
surface cells (
cervical dysplasias),
which
can be detected by a
cervical sm ear test.
cestodes The scientific name for tape-
worms (see
tapeworm infestation).
cetirizine An
antihistamine drug
used to
relieve the symptoms of conditions such
as allergic
rhinitis
(hay fever) and
urticaria.
cetrimide An
antiseptic
used in prepara-
tions for cleansing the skin.
Chagas' disease An infectious parasitic
disease found only in parts of South
and Central America that is spread by
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