A second species of chlamydiae,
mainly affects birds but can
occasionally spread to people who have
contact with pigeons, parrots, parakeets,
or poultry, causing a type of pneumonia
Treatment for chlamydial infections is
A condition, also called melas-
ma, in which blotches of pale brown
pigmentation appear on the forehead,
cheeks, and nose. The pigmentation is
aggravated by sunlight. Chloasma some-
times develops during pregnancy. More
rarely, it is associated with the meno-
pause or use of
condition usually fades but may recur.
to treat some types of cancer, for exam-
monly used in the form of drops to treat
superficial eye infections. It is also used
to treat life-threatening infections when
the causative organism is unknown.
Rarely, tablets or injections are associ-
ated with aplastic
The toxic effects
of chemicals present in some defoliant
weedkillers. Ingesting chlorates can cause
kidney and liver damage, corrosion of
the intestine, and methaemoglobinae-
mia (a chemical change in
in the blood). Small doses of chlorates
can prove fatal. Symptoms of poisoning
include ulceration in the mouth, abdo-
minal pain, and diarrhoea.
mainly used to treat
A type of disinfectant
mainly used to cleanse the skin before
surgery or before taking a blood sample.
A poisonous, yellowish-green
gas with powerful bleaching and disin-
fecting properties. Inhaling even small
amounts is highly irritating to the
lungs; large amounts are rapidly fatal.
A colourless liquid produc-
ing a vapour that was formerly used as a
general anaesthetic (see
). Chloroform is associated with
liver damage and heart problems, and
safer drugs are now used instead.
A drug used mainly in the
prevention and treatment of
also used as an
. Side effects are nausea, headache,
diarrhoea, rashes, and abdominal pain.
Long-term use may damage the retina.
used to treat allergies such as allergic
(hay fever), allergic
. It is also
found in some
cold rem edies
An alternative name
A widely prescribed
drug used to relieve symp-
toms of major psychotic illnesses such
reduces delusional and hallucinatory
experiences and may have an effect on
irritability and overactivity. It is also
used as an antiemetic. Chlorpromazine
may cause photosensitivity of the skin
and, in some cases,
reactions, and blurred vision.
A drug that is used to
or both of the nasal
cavities are not fully developed.
Partial or complete inability to
breathe due to an obstruction of the
airways. Choking is often due to food or
drink entering the
instead of passing from the
. Coughing normally dis-
lodges the food or drink. An obstruction
that partially blocks the airway and cannot
be dislodged by coughing is more seri-
ous. If the airway is completely blocked,
total suffocation will result if the block-
age is not removed. If an obstruction
cannot be cleared by first aid techniques,
such as the
removed manually, an emergency
may be performed to restore
obstruction with instruments.
growth in one of the
causes jaundice and weight loss.
A procedure that uses
Cholangiography is used
to look for biliary stones or to diagnose
narrowing or tumours of the bile ducts.