CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY
muscle fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, and
headaches. The syndrome is often asso-
There is no specific diagnostic test for
chronic fatigue syndrome, and investi-
gations are usually aimed at excluding
other possible causes of the symptoms,
A physical examination,
blood tests, and psychological assess-
ment may be carried out. If no cause can
be found, diagnosis of chronic fatigue
syndrome is made from the symptoms.
may relieve the symptoms.
may also be helpful.
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a long-
term disorder, but the symptoms clear
up after several years in some people.
chronic obstructive pulmonary dis-
pulmonary disease, chronic
drug reduces the risk of tissue rejection
and the need for large doses of
Ciclosporin may need to
be taken indefinitely after a transplant. It
is also used to treat
ciclosporin suppresses the
it increases the susceptibility to
infection. Swelling of the gums and in-
creased hair growth are fairly common.
Ciclosporin may also cause kidney dam-
age, and regular monitoring of kidney
function is required.
Hair-like filaments on the surface
of some epithelial cells (see
Cilia are found particularly in the linings
of the respiratory tract, where they pro-
pel dust and mucus out of the airways.
A structure in the
taining muscles that alter the shape of
to adjust focus. (See also
used as an
dine promotes the healing of gastric
and duodenal ulcers (see
and reduces the symptoms of
s. Side effects include dizziness,
fatigue, and rashes. More rarely, the drug
causes impotence and
The abbreviation for
to control nausea and vomiting due to
travel sickness or to reduce nausea and
vertigo in inner-ear disorders, such as
doses are sometimes used to improve
peripheral vascular disease
Side effects may
include drowsiness, lethargy, dry mouth,
and blurred vision.
mainly to treat infections of the respira-
tory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts.
Any biological pat-
tern based on a cycle approximately 24
hours long, also called a diurnal rhythm.
circulation, disorders of
fecting blood flow around the body (see
arteries, disorders of; veins, disorders
, which together maintain a con-
tinuous flow of blood throughout the
body. The system provides tissues with
oxygen and nutrients, and carries away
waste products. The circulatory system
main parts: the systemic
circulation, which supplies blood to the
whole body apart from the lungs; and the
pulmonary circulation to the lungs.
Within the systemic circulation, there is
a bypass (the portal circulation), which
carries nutrient-rich blood from the stom-
organs to the liver for processing, stor-
age, or re-entry into general circulation.
In the systemic circulation, oxygen-rich
blood from the pulmonary circulation is
pumped under high pressure from the
of the heart into the
from where it travels through arteries
and smaller arterioles to all parts of the
body. Within body tissues, the arterioles
branch into networks of fine blood ves-
sels called capillaries. Oxygen and other
nutrients pass from the blood through
the capillaries' thin walls into body tis-
sues; carbon dioxide and other wastes
pass in the opposite direction. Deoxy-
genated blood is returned to the heart
via venules, veins, and the
Venous blood returns to the right atri-
um of the heart to enter the pulmonary
circulation. It is pumped from the right
ventricle through the pulmonary artery