CLAUSTROPHOBIA
CLONAZEPAM
c la u s tr o p h o b ia
Intense fear of being
in enclosed spaces, such as lifts, or of
being in crowded areas.
Behaviour ther-
apy is
the usual form of treatment,
c la v icle
The collarbone. The 2 clavicles,
1
on each side, form joints with the top
of the sternum (breastbone) and the
scapula (shoulderblade). The clavicles
support the arms and transmit forces
from the arms to the central skeleton.
CLAVICLE
c la w -f o o t
A deformity of the foot in
which the arch of the foot is exaggerated
and the tips of the toes turn under. Claw-
foot may be present from birth or result
from damage to the nerve or blood sup-
ply to the muscles of the foot. Surgery
may improve the condition,
c la w -h a n d
A deformity in which the
fingers are permanently curled, caused
by injury to the
ulnar nerve.
Treatment
includes repair of the damaged nerve, if
possible, by using splints to hold the
finger straight, or cutting a tendon in
the wrist to allow the fingers to straighten,
c la w -to e
A deformity of unknown cause
in which the end of one or more affected
toes bends downwards so that the toe
curls under. A painful
com
may develop
on the tip of the toe or on the top of the
bent joint. Protective pads can relieve
pressure from footwear. In severe cases,
surgery may be required,
cle ft lip a n d p a la te
A split in the
upper lip and/or palate that is present
at birth. Cleft lip is a vertical, usually
off-centre split in the upper lip that may
be a small notch or may extend to the
nose. The upper gum may also be cleft,
and the nose may be crooked. The term
hare lip refers only to a midline cleft lip,
which is rare. Cleft palate is a gap that
may extend from the back of the palate
to behind the teeth and be open to the
nasal cavity. Cleft palate is often accom-
panied by partial deafness and there
may be other
birth defects.
Surgery to repair a cleft lip may be
undertaken in the first few days after
birth or at about 3 months. It improves
appearance; after repair, speech defects
are rare. A cleft palate is usually re-
paired at about 12 months, but further
surgery,
orthodontic
treatment,
and
speech therapy
may be required,
cle m a stin e
An
antihistamine drug
used to
relieve the symptoms of allergies such
as
urticaria
and allergic
rhinitis
(hay fever).
Clemastine can cause drowsiness,
c le r g y m a n 's k n e e
Inflammation of the
bursa
that cushions the pressure point
over the tibial tubercle (the bony promi-
nence just below the knee) caused by
prolonged kneeling (see
bursitis).
c lim a c te r ic
See
menopause.
c lin d a m y c in
An
antibiotic dm g
with
severe side effects, used only to treat
serious infections that do not respond
to other antibiotic drugs,
c lito rid e c to m y
An operation to remove
the
clitoris
(see
circumcision
,
female).
c lito r is
Part of the female genitalia - a
small, sensitive, erectile organ, located
just below the pubic bone and partly
enclosed within the folds of the
labia.
The clitoris swells and becomes more
sensitive during sexual stimulation,
c lo f ib r a te
A
lipid-lowering dm g
that
reduces levels of
cholesterol
and
trigly-
cerides
in the blood and is a treatment
for some types
of h}sperlipidaemia.
clo m ife n e
A drug used to treat female
infertility
caused by failure to ovulate.
Minor side effects may include hot flush-
es, nausea, headache, breast tenderness,
and blurred vision. Occasionally,
ovarian
cysts
develop, but these shrink when
the dose is reduced. Use of the drug
may result in multiple births,
clo m ip ra m in e
A
tricyclic antidepressant
drug
used as treatment for
depression.
Side effects include dry mouth, blurred
vision, and constipation,
clo n a z e p a m
A
benzodiazepine dm g
that
is used mainly as an
anticonvulsant dm g
132
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