COBALAMIN
COD-LIVER OIL
c o b a la m in A
cobalt-
containing
com-
plex molecule, part of
vitamin By>-
c o b a lt A
metallic element and a con-
stituent of
vitamin
A
radioactive
form of cobalt is used in
radiotherapy.
c o c a in e A
drug obtained from the leaves
of the coca plant
er y t h r o x y lo n co c a ,
once used as a local anaesthetic (see
anaesthesia
,
local)
for minor surgical
procedures. Cocaine affects the brain,
producing euphoria and increased ener-
gy. Because of its effects, cocaine is
subject to
drug abuse.
Continued use
can lead to psychological dependence
(see
drug dependence),
and
psychosis
if
high doses are taken. Regular inhaling
of the drug can damage the lining of the
nose. Overdose can cause seizures and
cardiac arrest.
"Crack", a purified form of
cocaine, produces a more intense reac-
tion and has caused deaths due to
adverse effects on the heart,
c o c c i
Spherical
bacteria,
some of which
are responsible for certain infections in
humans (see
staphylococcal infections;
streptococcal infections).
c o c c y d y n ia A
pain in the region of the
coccjoc.
Coccydynia may result from a
blow to the base of the spine in a fall,
from prolonged pressure due to poor
posture when sitting, or the use of the
lithotomy
position
during childbirth.
The pain usually eases in time. Treat-
ment may include heat, injections of a
local anaesthetic, and
manipulation.
c o c c y x A
small triangular bone made up
of 4 tiny bones fused together at the base
of the
spine.
Together with a larger bone
called the
sacrum,
it forms the back sec-
tion of the
pelvis.
There is very little
COCCYX
Pelvic
inlet
Pubis
Coccyx
Ischium
PELVIS
Pubic
sym physis
relative movement between the coccyx
and sacrum. Later in life, they common-
ly become fused together,
c o c h le a
The spiral-shaped organ situat-
ed in the labyrinth of the inner ear that
transforms sound vibrations into nerve
impulses for transmission to the brain,
enabling
hearing.
LOCATION
c o c h l e a r im p la n t
A device used to
treat profoundly deaf people who are
not helped by hearing aids. A cochlear
implant consists of tiny electrodes sur-
gically implanted in the cochlea deep in
the inner ear and a receiver that is
embedded in the skull just behind and
above the ear. A microphone, sound
processor, and transmitter are worn
externally. A cochlear implant does not
restore normal hearing, but it enables
patterns of sound to be detected. Com-
bined with lip-reading, it may enable
speech to be understood,
c o -c o d a m o l
A compound
analgesic drug
containing
paracetamol
and
codeine.
c o d e in e
An
opioid analgesic drug
derived
from the
opium
poppy plant. Codeine is
a useful treatment for mild to moderate
pain and may be used in combination
with other opioid analgesics. It is also
used as a
cough rem edy
and as an
anti-
diarrhoeal drug.
It may cause dizziness
and drowsiness, especially if taken with
alcohol. Taken long-term, codeine may
cause constipation and be habit-forming,
c o d -liv e r o il
An oil obtained from the
liver of fresh cod, which is a valuable
source of
vitamin A
and
vitamin D.
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