An uncommon condition
in which the lining of the small intestine
is damaged due to
a protein found in wheat, rye, and
some other cereals. Damage to the intes-
tinal lining causes
loss, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies
that can lead to
and skin prob-
lems. Faeces are bulky and foul-smelling.
The disease tends to run in families and
varies in severity. In babies, symptoms
usually develop within
months of the
introduction of gluten into the diet. The
baby may become listless and irritable,
develop vomiting and acute diarrhoea,
and become dehydrated and seriously
ill. In adults, symptoms such as tired-
ness, breathlessness, diarrhoea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, and swelling of the
legs may develop gradually over months.
A chronic, distinctive rash called
people suffer damage to the intestinal
lining but never develop symptoms.
Diagnosis is made by blood, urine,
and faeces tests and
which small samples of the lining of the
intestine are taken for examination.
Coeliac disease is treated by a lifelong
gluten-free diet, which usually relieves
symptoms within weeks of introduction.
od of treating psychological disorders
based on the idea
that problems arise from a person's faulty
cognitions (erroneous ways of perceiv-
ing the world and oneself). In cognitive-
behavioural therapy, the patient is helped
to identify negative or false cognitions
and then encouraged to try out new
Any of the various types of intraute-
rine contraceptive device (see
Another term for
A method of contra-
) in which the male partner
withdraws his penis from the vagina
before ejaculation occurs. Coitus inter-
ruptus is unreliable because sperm can
be released before orgasm occurs, and
it may cause
in men and women.
A drug extracted from the
autumn crocus flower used to treat acute
and to reduce their fre-
quency. Side effects include vomiting
A common viral infec-
tion that causes inflammation of the
mucous membranes lining the nose and
throat. Symptoms include a stuffy or
runny nose, sore throat, headache, and
cough. The symptoms of a common
cold usually intensify over 24-48 hours,
unlike those of
rapidly over a few hours.
There are at least 200 highly conta-
gious viruses that are known to cause
the common cold. These viruses are
easily transmitted in the minute air-
borne drolets sprayed from the coughs
or sneezes of infected people. In many
cases, the viruses are also spread to the
nose and throat by way of hand-to-hand
contact with an infected person or by
way of objects that have becom con-
taminated with the virus.
Most colds clear up within about a
week. In some cases, infection spreads
these cases, a more serious secondary
bacterial infection may follow.
may be needed if this happens.
Localized tissue damage
caused by chilling, the most serious
form of which is
Cold injury is
, which refers
to chilling of the whole body.
In frostbite, an area of skin and flesh
becomes frozen, hard, and white as a
result of exposure to very cold, dry air.
Sometimes there is restriction of the
blood supply to the affected area.
Another type of cold injury,
, occurs when the legs and feet are
kept cold and damp for hours or days.
The main risk of both conditions is that
blood flow will be slowed so much that
the tissues will die, leading to
Preparations for the relief
of symptoms of the common cold (see
common). The main ingredient is
usually a mild
, which helps to