CORSET
COUGH
C
luteum secretes the female sex hormone
progesterone
,
which causes the lining of
the uterus to thicken in preparation for
implantation of a fertilized egg. If fertil-
ization does not occur, the corpus
luteum shrinks and dies.
corset
A device worn around the trunk
to treat
back pain
and spinal injuries or
deformities.
cortex
The outer layer of certain organs,
such as the brain or kidneys.
corticosteroid drugs
A group of drugs
that are similar to the
corticosteroid
hormones
produced by the
adrenal
glands
. Corticosteroids are used as hor-
mone replacement therapy in
Addison's
disease
and when the
adrenal glands
or
pituitary gland
have been destroyed or
removed. They are also used to treat
inflammatory intestinal disorders such
as
ulcerative colitis
and
Crohn's disease
and as an urgent treatment for inflam-
mation in the artery supplying the retina
in
temporal arteritis
. Other uses include
treatment of
autoimmune diseases
such
as systemic
lupus erythematosus
and
rheumatoid arthritis
, and treatment of
asthma
,
eczema
, and
allergic rhinitis
.
Corticosteroid drugs are also used to
prevent organ rejection after
transplant
surgery
and in the treatment of some
types of cancer, such as a
lymphoma
or
leukaemia
. Corticosteroid injections may
relieve pain in disorders such as
tennis
elbow
and
arthritis
.
Side effects are uncommon when cor-
ticosteroids are given as a cream or by
inhaler, but tablets taken in high doses
for long periods may cause
oedema
,
hypertension
,
diabetes mellitus
,
peptic
ulcer
,
Cushing's syndrome
,
inhibited
growth in children, and, in rare cases,
cataract
or
psychosis
. High doses also
impair
the
body's
immune
system
.
Long-term treatment suppresses pro-
duction of corticosteroid hormones by
the adrenal glands, and sudden with-
drawal may lead to
adrenal failure
.
corticosteroid hormones
A group of
hormones produced by the
adrenal
glands
that control the body's use of
nutrients and the excretion of salts and
water in the urine.
corticotropin
An alternative name for
ACTH
(adrenocorticotrophic hormone).
cortisol
Another name for
hydrocorti-
sone
,
a corticosteroid hormone produced
by the
adrenal glands
.
cortisone
A synthetic
corticosteroid drug
used to reduce inflammation in severe
allergic, rheumatic, and connective tissue
diseases and as a replacement hormone
in
Addison's disease.
Side effects include
peptic ulcer
and bleeding in the stomach.
coryza
A term for the nasal symptoms
of the common cold (see
cold,
common).
cosmetic dentistry
Procedures to im-
prove the appearance of the
teeth
or
prevent further damage to the teeth
and/or
gums
. Cosmetic dentistry proce-
dures include: fitting an
orthodontic
appliance
to correct teeth that are out of
alignment or where the bite is incorrect
(see
malocclusion
); fitting a
crown; bond-
ing
to treat chipped or stained teeth;
and
bleaching
of discoloured teeth.
cosmetic surgery
An operation per-
formed to improve appearance rather
than to cure or treat disease. Cosmetic
surgery techniques include the removal
of skin blemishes or
dermabrasion
;
rhinoplasty
to alter the shape or size of
the nose;
face-lifts
;
mammoplasty
to
reduce or enlarge the breasts;
body con-
tour surgery
to remove excess body fat
and tissue;
hair transplants
;
blepharo-
plasty
to remove excess skin on the
eyelids; and mentoplasty to alter the size
or shape of the chin. All cosmetic
surgery carries the risk of side effects
from the anaesthetic, as well as of com-
plications of the procedure itself.
costalgia
Pain around the chest due to
damage to a
rib
or to one of the
inter-
costal nerves
beneath the ribs. Damage
to an intercostal nerve most commonly
results from of an attack of the viral
infection
herpes zoster
(shingles).
cot death
See
sudden infant death syn-
drome.
co-trimoxazole
An
antibacterial drug
containing
trimethoprim
and
sulfa-
methoxazole. Because of potentially
seriously side effects, co-trimoxazole is
now used to treat certain infections
only when they cannot be treated with
other drugs.
cough
A
reflex
action that occurs as an
attempt to clear the airways of mucus,
sputum, a foreign body, or any other
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