CROW N, DENTAL
A term for a turning point in the
course of a disease (either the onset of
recovery or deterioration), or for a dis-
tressing and difficult episode in life.
The provision of
immediate advice or help by a variety of
agencies such as social services depart-
ments to people with acute personal or
A term used to mean seriously ill
or to describe a crucial state of illness
from which a patient may not recover.
A chronic inflamma-
tory disease affecting the
In young people, Crohn's disease
usually affects the
, causing spasms
of abdominal pain, diarrhoea, loss of
, weight loss, and
In elderly people, the
is more often affected, causing rectal
bleeding. In both groups, the disease
may also affect the
, the colon and,
rarely, the mouth,
Complications include obstructions in
the intestine; chronic abscesses; inter-
between intestinal loops; and external
fistulas from the intestine to the skin of
the abdomin skin or around the anus.
Complications in other parts of the
body may include inflammation of the
in various joints,
, and skin disor-
Investigatory procedures may include
and X-rays using barium
barium X-ray examinations
may help distinguish
the disease from
and related drugs, and
may be prescribed.
A high-vitamin, low-fibre diet may be
beneficial. Acute attacks may require hos-
pital treatment, and many patients need
surgery. The symptoms fluctuate over
many years, eventually subsiding in some
patients. If the disease is localized, a
person may remain in normal health.
A type of
which some or all of the lower front
teeth overlap the upper front teeth.
A type of
in which one or both eyes turns inwards
relative to the other.
A procedure to deter-
mine compatibility between the blood
of a person requiring a
and that of a
. Red blood cells from
one person are combined with
from the other. Clumping of red blood
cells indicates the presence of
showing the blood is not compatible.
A common condition in infants
and young children in which narrowing
and inflammation of the airways causes
hoarseness, stridor (a grunting noise
during breathing), and a barking cough.
Croup may be caused by a viral or bac-
terial infection that affects the
Other causes include
spasm caused by deficient
blood, and inhalation of a
Most cases are due to a viral infection
and are mild.
Humidifying the air can help to make
) and oxygen
may be prescribed. Infections are treat-
An artificial replacement
for the crown of a
that has be-
come decayed, discoloured, or broken.
A porcelain crown is usually used on
front teeth, but back teeth require the
greater strength of a crown made from
gold or porcelain fused to metal.
A crown may be fitted by filing the nat-
ural tooth to form a peg and cementing
the crown over the top. If the tooth is