cysts, breast cysts, Baker's cysts,
that form around parasites in diseases
such as hydatid disease or amoebiasis.
Cysts may need to be removed surgical-
ly if they disrupt the function of tissues.
Relating to the
(inflammation of the bladder).
Surgical removal of the
, used for treating bladder cancer (see
It is followed by con-
struction of an alternative channel for
, usually ending in a
lower abdomen (see
In men, the
are also removed, usually result-
In women, the
After cystectomy an external pouch is
worn for the collection of urine.
An infection, rare in devel-
oped countries, characterized by the
in muscles and in the
brain that are formed by the larval stage
of the pork
acterized by a tendency to develop
chronic lung infections and an inability
to absorb fats and other nutrients from
food. The main feature of cystic fibrosis
(CF) is secretion of sticky mucus, which
is unable to flow freely, in the nose,
throat, airways, and intestines.
The course and severity of the disease
vary. Typically, a child passes unformed,
pale, oily, foul-smelling
fail to thrive. Often, growth is stunted
and the child has recurrent respiratory
infections. Without prompt treatment,
may develop, causing lung damage.
Most male sufferers and some females
are infertile. CF causes excessive loss of
salt in sweat, and
lapse may occur in hot weather.
Prompt treatment with intensive
helps to minimize
lung damage from chest infections.
and a diet rich in proteins
and calories are given to bring about
weight gain and more normal faeces.
However, despite treatment, most people
with CF suffer permanent lung damage
and have a reduced life expectancy. Lung
or heart-lung transplants have produced
good results, and specific
is becoming a possibility.
can determine whether or not a fetus is
affected, or, alternatively, newborn babies
can be screened for the disease; early
diagnosis and treatment improves the
Inflammation of the
ing, usually due to a bacterial infection.
The main symptoms are a frequent urge
and burning pain on uri-
nating. Urine may be foul-smelling or
contain blood. There may be fever and
chills, and lower abdominal discomfort.
Cystitis is common in women because
is short, making it easier for
bacteria to pass into the bladder. A
can obstruct urine
flow and increase the risk of infection.
In men, cystitis is rare; it usually occurs
when an obstruction, such as an en-
slarged prostate gland (see
), compresses the urethra. Cys-
titis is children is often associated with
a structural abnormality of the
(backward flow) of
urine. The use of catheters (see
also carries the risk of
infection. Diabetics are especially sus-
ceptible to urinary tract infections.
Symptoms of mild cystitis may be re-
lieved by drinking
liter) of fluid
every 4 hours. Any infection is treated
A swelling in the
is formed where the
against weakened tissues in the vaginal
wall. Cystocele may be associated with
a prolapsed uterus (see
). If the urethra is pulled out of posi-
tion by a cystocele, it may cause
or incomplete emptying of
the bladder, leading to infection of the
retained urine (see
may relieve symptoms. Surgery
may be used to lift and tighten the tis-
sues at the front of the vagina.
A procedure used to assess
function and to detect abnor-
malities of the
bladder or bladder muscle. Cystometry
is used to investigate urinary
or poor bladder emptying caused by
damage to bladder muscles or disrupt-
ed nerve control of these muscles.