CYST-/CYSTO-
CYSTOMETRY
C
cysts, breast cysts, Baker's cysts,
and cysts
that form around parasites in diseases
such as hydatid disease or amoebiasis.
Cysts may need to be removed surgical-
ly if they disrupt the function of tissues.
cyst-/cysto-
Relating to the
bladder,
as
in
cystitis
(inflammation of the bladder).
cystectomy
Surgical removal of the
blad-
der
, used for treating bladder cancer (see
bladder tumours).
It is followed by con-
struction of an alternative channel for
urine
, usually ending in a
stoma
in the
lower abdomen (see
urinary diversion
).
In men, the
prostate gland
and
seminal
vesicles
are also removed, usually result-
ing in
impotence.
In women, the
uterus,
ovaries
, and
fallopian tubes
are removed.
After cystectomy an external pouch is
worn for the collection of urine.
cysticercosis
An infection, rare in devel-
oped countries, characterized by the
presence of
cysts
in muscles and in the
brain that are formed by the larval stage
of the pork
tapeworm.
cystic fibrosis
A
genetic disorder,
char-
acterized by a tendency to develop
chronic lung infections and an inability
to absorb fats and other nutrients from
food. The main feature of cystic fibrosis
(CF) is secretion of sticky mucus, which
is unable to flow freely, in the nose,
throat, airways, and intestines.
The course and severity of the disease
vary. Typically, a child passes unformed,
pale, oily, foul-smelling
faeces
and may
fail to thrive. Often, growth is stunted
and the child has recurrent respiratory
infections. Without prompt treatment,
pneumonia
,
bronchitis,
and
bronchiect-
asis
may develop, causing lung damage.
Most male sufferers and some females
are infertile. CF causes excessive loss of
salt in sweat, and
heatstroke
and col-
lapse may occur in hot weather.
Prompt treatment with intensive
physio-
therapy
and
antibiotics
helps to minimize
lung damage from chest infections.
Pancreatin
and a diet rich in proteins
and calories are given to bring about
weight gain and more normal faeces.
However, despite treatment, most people
with CF suffer permanent lung damage
and have a reduced life expectancy. Lung
or heart-lung transplants have produced
good results, and specific
gene therapy
is becoming a possibility.
Amniocentesis
can determine whether or not a fetus is
affected, or, alternatively, newborn babies
can be screened for the disease; early
diagnosis and treatment improves the
long-term prognosis.
cystitis
Inflammation of the
bladder
lin-
ing, usually due to a bacterial infection.
The main symptoms are a frequent urge
to pass
urine
and burning pain on uri-
nating. Urine may be foul-smelling or
contain blood. There may be fever and
chills, and lower abdominal discomfort.
Cystitis is common in women because
the
urethra
is short, making it easier for
bacteria to pass into the bladder. A
bladder
calculus
(stone), a
bladder tumour,
or a
urethral stricture
can obstruct urine
flow and increase the risk of infection.
In men, cystitis is rare; it usually occurs
when an obstruction, such as an en-
slarged prostate gland (see
prostate,
enlarged
), compresses the urethra. Cys-
titis is children is often associated with
a structural abnormality of the
ureters
,
which allows
reflux
(backward flow) of
urine. The use of catheters (see
catheter-
ization, urinary
)
also carries the risk of
infection. Diabetics are especially sus-
ceptible to urinary tract infections.
Symptoms of mild cystitis may be re-
lieved by drinking
1
pint (M
liter) of fluid
every 4 hours. Any infection is treated
with
antibiotic drugs.
cystocele
A swelling in the
vagina
that
is formed where the
bladder
pushes
against weakened tissues in the vaginal
wall. Cystocele may be associated with
a prolapsed uterus (see
uterus, prolapse
of
). If the urethra is pulled out of posi-
tion by a cystocele, it may cause
stress
incontinence
or incomplete emptying of
the bladder, leading to infection of the
retained urine (see
cystitis
).
Pelvic floor
exercises
may relieve symptoms. Surgery
may be used to lift and tighten the tis-
sues at the front of the vagina.
cystometry
A procedure used to assess
bladder
function and to detect abnor-
malities of the
nerves
supplying the
bladder or bladder muscle. Cystometry
is used to investigate urinary
incontinence
or poor bladder emptying caused by
damage to bladder muscles or disrupt-
ed nerve control of these muscles.
156
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