CYSTOSCOPY
CYTOTOXIC DRUGS
CYSTOSCOPY
c y s to s c o p y
The examination of the
ur-
ethra
and
bladder
using a cystoscope
inserted up the urethra. A cystoscope is
a rigid metal or flexible fibre-optic view-
ing instrument, sometimes with a camera
at the tip (see
endoscopy).
Cystoscopy is
used to inspect the bladder for
calculi,
bladder tumours,
and sites of bleeding
and infection, and to obtain urine sam-
ples from the
ureters
to look for infection
or tumour cells.
Radiopaque
dye may be
injected into the ureters via the cysto-
scope during the X-ray procedure of
retrograde pyelography (see
urography).
Treatment, including removal of blad-
der tumours or calculi and insertion of
stents
(narrow tubes) into a ureter to
relieve an obstruction, can all be per-
formed via the cystoscope.
c y s to s to m y
The surgical creation of a
hole in the
bladder
usually performed
to drain
urine
when the introduction of
a
catheter
is inadvisable or impossible,
c y s to u r e th r o g r a p h y , m ic tu r a tin g
An
X-ray procedure for studying the
bladder
while urine is passed. Micturating cysto-
urethrography is most commonly used
in young children to detect abnormal
reflux
of urine as the bladder empties,
-c y te
A suffix that denotes a
cell.
For ex-
ample, a leukocyte is a white blood cell,
c y to -
A prefix that means related to a
cell,
as in cytology, the study of cells,
c y to k in e
A protein released by body
cells in response to the presence of dis-
ease-causing organisms such as
viruses.
Cytokines (which include
interferons)
bind to other cells, activating the im-
mune response (see
immune system).
c y to lo g y
The study of individual cells.
Cytology's main use in medicine is to
detect abnormal cells. It is widely used
to screen for cancer (as in the
cervical
sm ear test)
or to confirm a diagnosis of
cancer, and increasingly in antenatal
screening for certain fetal abnormalities
(using
amniocentesis
or
chorionic villus
sampling
to obtain the sample of cells).
Examination of cells in a sample of
fluid also helps to determine the cause
of conditions such as
pleural effusion
and
ascites.
Fine-needle aspiration
biopsy
of internal organs also involves cytology,
cy to m e g a lo v iru s
One of the most com-
mon
herpes
viruses, which causes infected
cells to take on an enlarged appearance.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may
cause an illness resembling
infectious
mononucleosis,
but usually produces no
symptoms. People who have impaired
immunity are more seriously infected. A
pregnant woman can transmit the virus
to her unborn child; this can cause birth
defects and brain damage in the child,
c y to p a th o lo g y
The study of the micro-
scopic appearances of
cells
in health
and disease. (See also
cytology.)
c y to to x ic d r u g s
A group of drugs that
kill or damage abnormal
cells;
a type of
anticancer drug.
Cytotoxic drugs may
also damage or kill healthy cells, espe-
cially those that are multiplying rapidly.
157
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