DEFOLIANT POISONING
DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS
DEFIBRILLATION
Jelly pad to
protect skin
Blood-pressure cuff
Paddle
placed
on chest
Breathing bag to inflate
lungs with oxygen
Defibrillator delivers
fU f^ rtrir c h n r k Anri
infarction).
It can also be used as a
planned treatment, in which case it is
performed under a brief general
anaes-
thesia.
Breathing may be maintained
artificially during the procedure,
d e fo lia n t p o is o n in g
The toxic effects of
plant poisons that cause leaves to drop
off. Defoliants are poisonous if swal-
lowed. Widely used defoliants include
sodium
chlorate,
potassium chlorate,
phenoxy herbicides, and
paraquat.
d e fo rm ity
Any malformation or distor-
tion of part of the body. Deformities
may be congenital (present from birth),
or they may be acquired as a result of
injury, disorder, or disuse. Most congen-
ital deformities are relatively rare. Among
the more common are club-foot (
talipes
)
and
cleft lip and palate.
Injuries that can
cause deformity include burns, torn mus-
cles, and broken bones. Disorders that
may cause deformity include nerve prob-
lems, some deficiencies, such as
rickets,
and
Paget's disease
of the bone. Disuse of
a part of the body can lead to deformity
through stiffening and
contracture
of
unused muscles or tendons. Many defor-
mities can be corrected by orthopaedic
techniques,
plastic surgery,
or exercise,
d e g e n e r a tio n
Physical and/or chemical
changes in cells, tissues, or organs that
reduce their efficiency. It is a feature of
aging and may also be due to a disease
process. Other known causes include
injury, reduced blood supply, poisoning
(by alcohol, for example), or a diet defi-
cient in a specific vitamin. (See also
degenerative disorders.)
d e g e n e r a tiv e d is o r d e r s
A term cover-
ing a range of conditions in which there
is progressive impairment of the struc-
ture and function of part of the body.
The definition excludes conditions due
to inflammation, infection, altered im-
mune responses, chemical or physical
damage, or cancerous change.
The number of specialized cells or
structures in the organ affected is usu-
ally reduced, and cells are replaced by
connective tissue
or scar tissue.
Degenerative nervous system disor-
ders include
Alzheimer's disease, motor
neuron disease
,
Huntington's disease,
and
Parkinson's disease.
Degenerative
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