in which the patient is gradually expo-
sed to the cause of the fear.
A drug used to rid
the body tissues of excess
accumulates as a result of repeated
blood transfusions in anaemias, such
is also used to treat iron poisoning and
may also be used to treat excess
in people on
is administered by intravenous injec-
tion or subcutaneous infusion and may
be given with
to boost excre-
tion of the iron.
Side effects may
include gastrointestinal disturbances,
dizziness, and skin reactions.
A group of illegally
produced chemicals that mimic the
effects of specific drugs of abuse. They
Made in illicit laboratories,
they are cheap to produce and undercut
the street prices of drugs.
There are 3 major groups: drugs derived
such as fen-
tanyl; drugs similar to amfetamines,
and variants of phency-
clidine (PCP), a hallucinogenic drug.
These highly potent drugs are not tested
for adverse effects or for the strength of
the tablets or capsules, making their use
hazardous. For example, some deriva-
tives of fentanyl are
derivatives can cause brain damage at
doses only slightly higher than those
required for a stimulant effect. Many
designer drugs contain impurities that
can cause permanent damage.
A growth, usually in
the abdominal wall. The tumour is hard,
with a well-defined edge. The tumours
occur most frequently in women who
have had children. They may also arise
at the sites of old surgical incisions.
Surgical removal is the usual treatment.
A synthetic form of
(antidiuretic hormone) that is used to
as an ingredient of
Desogestrel is reported to have a slightly
higher risk of venous
than older drugs. Side effects of deso-
gestrel include weight changes and
fluid retention. There may also be nau-
sea, vomiting, headache, depression,
and breast tenderness.
The toxic effects
that occur as a result of swallowing the
cleaning agents in shampoos, laundry
powders, and cleaning liquids.
The process of growth and
change by which an individual matures
physically, mentally, emotionally, and
socially. Development takes place in
major phases: during the first
of pregnancy (see
); to a lesser
extent, during the rest of pregnancy
during the first 5 years of life
); and during
A term used if a
baby or young child has not achieved
new abilities within the normal time
range. Normally, new abilities and new
patterns of behaviour appear at given
ages, and existing patterns of behaviour
change and sometimes disappear (see
Delays vary in severity and may affect
the development of hand-eye coord-
ination, walking, listening, language,
speech, or social interaction. Delay may
first be noticed by parents or detected
during a routine developmental check.
There are many causes of develop-
mental delay. A child who is late in
most aspects of development usually
has a generalized problem. This may be
due to severe visual or hearing impair-
ment, limited intellectual abilities (see
), or damage to the
brain before, during, or after birth.
Specific areas of delay may occur in
movement and walking. Often there is
no serious cause. However, specific
causes may include
. Delay in developing
manipulative skills is often due to lack
of adequate stimulation.
A lack of response to sound may be
is a rare cause
of unresponsiveness to the human
voice although hearing is normal. A
hearing problem may cause delayed