DEVELOPMENTAL HIP DYSPLASIA
DEXTROSE
speech. Twins are often late talkers. Any
generalized difficulty with muscle con-
trol can affect speech production; this
may occur in children with cerebral
palsy. Damage to, or structural defects
of, the speech muscles, larynx (voice
box), or mouth may also cause speech
difficulties, as may any disorder affect-
ing the speech area of the brain (see
aphasia
;
dysarthria
;
dysphonia
;
speech
disorders
).
Delay in bladder and bowel
control have many possible causes (see
encopresis
;
enuresis
;
soiling
).
A child who shows signs of develop-
mental delay should undergo a full
assessment by a paediatrician.
developmental hip dysplasia
A dis-
order present at birth in which the head
of the
femur
(thigh-bone) fails to fit
properly into the cup-like socket in the
pelvis
to form a joint. One or both of the
hips may be affected.
The cause of developmental hip dys-
plasia is not known, although it is more
common in girls, especially babies born
by
breech delivery
or following pregnan-
cies in which the amount of amniotic
fluid was abnormally small.
If dislocation is detected in early
infancy,
splints
are applied to the thigh
to manoeuvre the ball of the joint into
the socket and keep it in position.
These are worn for about 3 months and
usually correct the problem. Progress
may be monitored by
ultrasound scan-
ning
and
X-rays
.
Corrective surgery may
also be required.
If treatment is delayed, there may be
lifelong problems with walking. Without
treatment, the dislocation often leads
to shortening of the leg, limping, and
early
osteoarthritis
in the joint.
deviated nasal septum
See
nasal sep-
tum
.
deviation, sexual
A form of sexual beha-
viour, most common in men, in which
intercourse between adults is not the
final aim. Forms of sexual deviation
include
exhibitionism
,
fetishism
,
paedo-
philia
, and
transvestism
.
dexamethasone
A
corticosteroid drug
prescribed as a nasal spray to relieve
nasal congestion
caused
by allergic
rhinitis
, as eye drops in the treatment of
iritis
, and as eardrops in the treatment
of
otitis externa
.
It is given in tablet form
or injected to treat severe
asthma
and
other inflammatory disorders in order
to reduce inflammation of the brain
due, for example, to
head injury
.
It may
be injected into an inflamed joint to
relieve the symptoms of
osteoarthritis
.
The nasal spray may cause nose-
bleeds; eye drops may cause irritation.
Prolonged use or high doses of tablet
may cause adverse effects common to
the corticosteroids.
dexamfetamine
A central nervous sys-
tem stimulant (see
amfetamine drugs
;
stimulant drugs
) sometimes used to treat
narcolepsy
. It is also used in children
with
attention deficit hyperactivity disor-
der
. Because of its stimulant properties,
dexamfetamine has become a drug of
abuse. With prolonged use, the stimulant
effects lessen and a higher dose must
be taken to produce the same effect.
D EXA scan
Dual-energy X-ray absorp-
tiometry, a technique that measures
bone density by passing beams of low-
dose radiation through bone. DEXA scans
are used to assess the severity of
osteo-
porosis
.
(See also
densitometry
.)
dextrocardia
A rare condition, present
from birth, in which the heart points to
the right-hand side of the chest instead
of the left. The heart may also be mal-
formed. Sometimes, the position of the
abdominal organs is also reversed. The
cause of dextrocardia is unknown. Sur-
gical treatment is only necessary if the
heart is malformed.
dextromethorphan
A cough suppres-
sant available over the counter as an
ingredient in
cough remedies
.
dextromoramide
An opioid
analgesic
drug
related to opium that is used to
relieve severe pain following injury or
surgery and during long-term illnesses.
It relieves pain quickly but has only a
short duration of action. Regular use
can produce
drug dependence
.
dextropropoxyphene
A weak opioid
analgesic drug
included in some com-
pound analgesic preparations. It works
rapidly and relieves mild to moderate
pain for about 4 hours. Adverse effects
may include drowsiness, dizziness, nau-
sea, and vomiting.
dextrose
Another name for
glucose.
D
169
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