DIALYSIS
DIAPHRAGM MUSCLE
dialysis
A filtering technique used to
remove waste products from the blood
and excess fluid from the body as a
treatment for
kidney failure
.
The kidneys
normally filter about 1,500 litres of blood
daily. They maintain the fluid and
elec-
trolyte
balance of the body and excrete
wastes in the urine. Important elements,
such as sodium, potassium, calcium,
amino acids, glucose, and water are re-
absorbed.
Urea
, excess minerals, toxins,
and drugs are excreted. Dialysis is used
to perform this function in people whose
kidneys have been damaged due to
acute kidney failure or chronic kidney
failure. Without dialysis, wastes accu-
mulate in the blood. In chronic kidney
failure, patients may need to have dialy-
sis several times a week for the rest of
their lives or until they can be given a
kidney transplant
. In acute kidney failure,
dialysis is carried out more intensively
until the kidneys are working normally.
There are 2 methods of dialysis: haemo-
dialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In both
methods, excess water and wastes in the
blood pass across a membrane into a
solution (dialysate), which is then discard-
ed. Haemodialysis filters out wastes by
passing blood through an artificial kid-
ney machine. The process takes 2-6 hours.
Peritoneal dialysis makes use of the
peritoneum
(the membrane that lines
the abdomen) as a filter. The procedure
is often carried out overnight or contin-
uously during the day and night. Both
types of dialysis carry the risk of upset-
ting body chemistry and fluid balance.
There is also a risk of infection within
the peritoneum in peritoneal dialysis.
diamorphine
A synthetic, opioid
anal-
gesic drug
similar to
morphine;
it is
another name for heroin. Diamorphine
is used to relieve severe pain and also
to relieve distress in acute
heart failure
.
It carries the risk of dependence so is
prescribed with caution. The drug may
also cause nausea, vomiting, and con-
stipation. (See also
heroin abuse.)
diaphragm, contraceptive
A female
barrier method of contraception in the
form of a hemispherical dome of thin
rubber with a metal spring in the rim.
(See also
contraception, barrier methods.)
diaphragm muscle
The dome-shaped
sheet of muscle that separates the chest
from the abdomen. It is attached to the
spine, ribs, and sternum (breastbone)
DIALYSIS
tubing
Connection
to vein
dialysate
Bag of used
dialysate
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
Saline solution
HAEMODIALYSIS
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