EMLA
EMULSIFYING OINTMENT
Electrical activity is measured during
muscle contraction and at rest; either
small disc electrodes are attached to
the skin over the muscle, or needle
electrodes are inserted into the muscle.
The impulses are displayed on a screen.
EM LA
An abbreviation for eutetic mix-
ture of local anaesthetics. This is a
cream that is applied to the skin to
produce local anaesthesia (see
anaes-
thesia,. local).
EMLA is used to reduce
discomfort before
intravenous
injection
and
venepuncture,
particularly in chil-
dren, and in skin
grafting.
e m o llie n t
A substance such as lanolin
or petroleum jelly that has a soothing
and softening effect when applied to
the skin, eyes, or
mucous membranes.
Emollients are used in creams, oint-
ments, nasal sprays, and suppositories,
e m o tio n a l d e p riv a tio n
Lack of suffi-
cient loving attention and of warm,
trusting relationships during a child's
early years, so that normal emotional
development is inhibited. Emotional
deprivation may result if
bonding
does
not occur in the early months of life.
Emotionally deprived children may be
impulsive, crave attention, be unable to
cope with frustration, and may have im-
paired intellectual development,
e m o tio n a l p r o b le m s
A common term
for a range of psychological difficulties,
often related to
anxiety
or
depression
,
which may have various causes,
e m p a th y
The ability to understand and
share the thoughts and feelings of
another person. In
psychoanalysis
, the
therapist partly relies on empathy to
establish a relationship with a patient,
e m p h y s e m a
A disease in which the
walls of the air sacs in the lungs, known
as alveoli (see
alveolus
,
pulmonary),
are
progessively destroyed, thus reducing
the area of lung available for exchange
of gases. Emphysema usually develops
along with chronic
bronchitis,
in a con-
dition
known
as
chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease.
In almost all cases,
emphysema is due to smoking. Rarely,
an inherited deficiency of a chemical
known as alpha |-antitrypsin results in
tissue damage, particularly in the lungs
and liver. As the disease progresses,
damage to the alveoli causes increasing
shortness of breath. Once the damage
to the lungs has occurred, there is no
treatment that can reverse it. Stopping
smoking will reduce the rate at which
the lungs deteriorate.
EMPHYSEMA
AIR SACS IN EMPHYSEMA
e m p h y s e m a , s u r g ic a l
The abnormal
presence of air in tissues under the skin
following surgery or injury,
e m p ir ic a l t r e a t m e n t
Treatment given
because its effectiveness has been ob-
served in previous, similar cases rather
than because there is an understanding
of the nature of the disorder and the
way the treatment works,
e m p y e m a
An accumulation of
pus
in a
body cavity or in certain organs. Empye-
ma can occur around a lung as a rare
complication of an infection such as
pneumonia
or
pleurisy.
The main symp-
toms are chest pain, breathlessness,
and fever. Treatment is by
aspiration
(re-
moval of the pus by suction) and the
injection of
antibiotic drugs,
or by an
operation to open the chest cavity and
drain the pus. Empyema of the
gallblad-
der
may occur as a complication of
cholecystitis,
when it causes abdominal
pain, fever, and
jaundice.
It is treated by
surgical removal of the gallbladder,
e m u lsify in g o in tm e n t
A type of
emol-
lient
containing emulsifying wax, white
198
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