ENALAPRIL
ENDARTERECTOMY
soft paraffin, and liquid paraffin that is
used to smooth, soothe, and hydrate
the skin in all dry or scaling conditions.
Rarely, ingredients such as preserva-
tives may result in sensitization.
enalapril
An
ACE inhibitor drug
used to
treat
hypertension
and
heart failure
.
enamel, dental
The hard outer layer of
a
tooth
that covers and protects the
inner structures.
encephalitis
Inflammation of the
brain
,
and sometimes also the
meninges
,
usu-
ally due to a viral infection. Encephalitis
varies in severity from mild, in which
symptoms are barely noticeable, to
serious and potentially life-threatening.
Mild cases can be due to glandular
fever (see
infectious mononucleosis
)
or
may be a complication of childhood
diseases such as
mumps
or
measles
.
The most common cause of life-threat-
ening encephalitis is
herpes simplex
,
particularly in people with
HIV.
Mild cases usually develop over sever-
al days and may cause only a slight
fever and mild headache. In serious
cases, symptoms develop rapidly and
include weakness or
paralysis
,
speech,
memory, and hearing problems, and
gradual loss of consciousness;
coma
and
seizures
may also occur. If the
meninges are inflamed, other symp-
toms may develop, such as a stiff neck
and abnormal sensitivity to light.
Diagnosis is based on results of blood
tests,
CT scanning
or
MRI
,
EEG
,
lumbar
puncture
, and, rarely, a brain
biopsy
.
Encephalitis due to herpes simplex is
treated with
intravenous infusion
of the
antiviral drug
aciclovir
,
but there is
no known treatment for encephalitis
caused by other viral infections.
encephalitis lethargica
An epidemic
form of
encephalitis
. There have been no
major outbreaks since the 1920s, but
rare sporadic cases still occur. Many
people who survived the initial illness
during the major epidemics developed
post-encephalitic
Parkinson's disease.
encephalocele
A type of
neural tube
defect
that results in defects of the
brain rather than of the spinal cord, as
occurs in
spina bifida
.
encephalomyelitis
Inflammation of the
brain and spinal cord, causing damage
to the nervous system. Encephalomyeli-
tis develops as a rare complication of
measles
or, less commonly, of other viral
infections such as
chickenpox
,
rubella,
or
infectious mononucleosis
. Symptoms
include fever, headache, drowsiness,
seizures, partial
paralysis
or loss of sen-
sation,
and,
in some cases,
coma
.
Diagnosis is as for
encephalitis
. There is
no cure, but
corticosteroid drugs
are
given to reduce inflammation and
anti-
convulsant drugs
to control seizures.
The disease is often fatal; those who
survive may have permanent damage to
the nervous system.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis
is another
term for
chronic fatigue syndrome
.
encephalopathy
Any disorder affecting
the
brain
, especially chronic degenera-
tive conditions.
Wernicke's encephalopathy is a degen-
erative condition of the brain caused by
a deficiency of vitamin B1 (see
Wer-
nicke-Korsakoff syndrome
).
Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by
the effect on the brain of toxic sub-
stances (see
toxin
) that have built up in
the blood as a result of
liver failure
.
It
may lead to impaired consciousness,
memory loss, a change in personality
tremors, and
seizures
.
Bovine spongform encephalopathy,
or
BSE, is a disorder contracted by cattle
after they are given feed containing
material from sheep or cattle. The cause
seems to be an infective agent known
as a
prion
.
Some cases of new variant
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
in humans
have been attributed to infection with
the prions responsible for BSE, proba-
bly transmitted in meat products.
encopresis
A type of
soiling
in which
children pass normal faeces in unac-
ceptable places after the age at which
bowel control is normally achieved. The
cause of encopresis is usually an under-
lying behavioural problem.
endarterectomy
An operation to re-
move the lining of an
artery
affected by
atherosclerosis,
restoring normal blood
flow. Endarterectomy is used to treat
cerebrovascular disease
and
peripheral
vascular disease
. The procedure can be
performed endoscopically (see
endos-
copy
) or by open surgery.
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