ENFLURANE
ENTROPION
there is usually a gain in weight. When
less energy is consumed than is spent,
weight is usually lost as the stores are
used up. (See also
nutrition; obesity.)
enflurane
A liquid mixed with
oxygen
and inhaled as a vapour to induce and
help maintain general anaesthesia (see
anaesthesia, general).
Rarely, enflurane
may cause
arrhythmia.
engagement
The descent of the head
of the
fetus
into the mother's
pelvis.
In a
woman's first pregnancy, engagement
usually occurs by the 37th week but in
subsequent pregnancies it may not
occur until labour begins.
BEFORE ENGAGEMENT
Head
sits in
pelvis
engorgement
Overfilling of the
breasts
with
milk
.
Engorgement is common a
few days after childbirth. It causes the
breasts and nipples to become swollen
and tender, and can make
breastfeeding
difficult. The problem can be relieved by
expressing milk
.
enkephalins
A group of small
protein
molecules produced in the
brain
and by
nerve endings elsewhere in the body.
Enkephalins have an analgesic effect
and are also thought to affect mood.
Enkephalins are similar to
endorphins
but have a slightly different chemical
composition and are released by differ-
ent nerve endings.
enophthalmos
A sinking inwards of the
eyeball. Enophthalmos is most often
caused by fracture of the eye socket or
shrinkage of the eye due to the forma-
tion of scar tissue following injury.
enteric-coated tablet
A tablet whose
surface is covered with a substance that
is resistant to the action of stomach
juices. Enteric-coated tablets pass un-
dissolved through the stomach into the
small intestine, where the covering dis-
solves and the contents are absorbed.
Such tablets are used either when the
drug might harm the stomach lining or
when the stomach juices may affect the
efficacy of the drug.
enteric fever
An alternative name for
typhoid fever
or
paratyphoid fever
.
enteritis
Inflammation of the small in-
testine. The inflammation may be the
result of infection, particularly
giardiasis
and
tuberculosis,
or of
Crohn's disease.
Enteritis usually causes diarrhoea. (See
also
gastroenteritis; colitis.)
enteritis, regional
Another name for
Crohn's disease
.
enterobiasis
A medical term for
thread-
worm infestation
of the intestines.
enterostomy
An operation in which a
portion of small or large intestine is
joined to another part of the gastroin-
testinal tract or to the abdominal wall,
for example in a
colostomy
or
ileostomy
.
enterotoxin
A type of
toxin
released by
certain
bacteria
that inflames the intes-
tinal lining, leading to diarrhoea and
vomiting. Enterotoxins cause the symp-
toms of staphylococcal
food poisoning
(see
staphylococcal
infections
)
and
cholera.
(See also
endotoxin; exotoxin.)
entrapment neuropathy
A condition,
such as
carpal tunnel syndrome
, in
which local pressure on a
nerve
causes
muscle pain, numbness, and weakness
in the area that the nerve supplies.
entropion
A turning in of the margins
of the
eyelids
so that the lashes rub
against the
cornea
and the
conjunctiva.
Entropion is sometimes present from
birth, especially in overweight babies. It
is common in the elderly, due to weak-
ness of the muscles around the lower
eye. Entropion of the upper or lower lid
may be caused by scarring, for example
that due to
trachoma
.
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