EPIPHYSIS, SLIPPED
ERCP
epiphysis, slipped
See
femoral epiph-
ysis, slipped
.
episcleritis
A localized patch of
inflam-
mation
affecting the outermost layers
of the
sclera
(white of the eye) immedi-
ately underneath the
conjunctiva
.
The
condition usually occurs for no known
reason, mainly affecting middle-aged
men. In some cases, it is a complication
of
rheumatoid arthritis
. The inflamma-
tion may cause a dull, aching pain and
there may be
photophobia
. The disorder
usually disappears by itself in a week or
so but may recur. Symptoms may be
relieved by using eye-drops or ointment
containing a
corticosteroid drug
.
episiotomy
A surgical
procedure
in
which an incision is made in the
peri-
neum
(the tissue between the vagina
and the anus) to facilitate the delivery
of a baby. After delivery, the cut tissues
are stitched back together. Episiotomy
is usually necessary in a
forceps delivery
and in a
breech delivery
.
epispadias
A rare
congenital
abnormal-
ity in which the opening of the
urethra
is not in the
glans
(head) of the
penis
,
but on its upper surface. In some cases,
the penis also curves upwards. Surgery
is carried out during infancy, using tis-
sue from the
foreskin
to reconstruct the
urethra. (See also
hypospadias
.)
epistaxis
A medical term for
nosebleed.
epithelium
The layer of
cells
that covers
the entire surface of the body and lines
most of the hollow structures within it.
Epithelial cells vary in shape according
to their function. There are three basic
shapes of cell: squamous (thin and flat),
cuboidal, and columnar. Most internal
organs lined with epithelium are cover-
ed with only one layer of cells, but the
skin, which is subjected to more trau-
ma, consists of many layers.
epoetin
A genetically engineered pre-
paration of the
hormone
erythropoietin,
which is produced by specialized cells
in the kidneys and stimulates the
bone
marrow
to make red blood cells. Epoet-
in may be used for treating
anaemia
resulting from the lack of erythropoetin
that occurs in
kidney failure
. It is also
used for anaemia occurring in chronic
disorders such as
rheumatoid arthritis
and itching associated with
uraemia
.
Epstein-Barr virus
A
virus
that caus-
es
infectious mononucleosis
; the virus is
also associated with
Burkitt's lymphoma
and cancer of the nasopharynx (see
nasopharynx, cancer of
).
ERCP
The abbreviation for endoscopic
retrograde cholangiopancreatography, an
X-ray
procedure used for examining the
biliary system
and the pancreatic duct.
ERCP
X-ray
monitor
Endoscope
ERCP
monitor
ROUTE OF ENDOSCOPE
X-ray
beam
Gallbladder
Endoscope
Common
bile duct
Pancreatic
duct
Duodenum
DETAIL
X-ray
machine
207
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