ESCHERICHIA COLI (E.COLI)
EUCALYPTUS OIL
E
Escherichia coli (E.coli)
A
bacterium
normally found in the intestines which,
if it enters the bladder through the ure-
thra, is a common cause of
urinary tract
infections.
Types of
e.coli
are often the
cause of traveller's diarrhoea, which is
usually a mild illness. However, some
strains of the bacterium can cause seri-
ous food-borne infections that can
result in
haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.
Esmarch's bandage
A broad, rubber
bandage wrapped around the elevated
limb of a patient to force blood out of
the blood vessels towards the heart;
this creates a blood-free area, enabling
surgery to be performed more easily.
esotropia
An alternative term for a con-
vergent
squint.
ESR
The abbreviation for erythrocyte
sedimentation rate, which is the rate at
which
erythrocytes
(red blood cells)
sink to the bottom of a test tube. The
ESR is increased if the level of
fibrino-
gen
(a type of protein) in the blood is
raised. Fibrinogen is raised in response
to a range of illnesses, including
inflam-
mation
, especially when this is caused
by infection or by an
autoimmune dis-
ease
. The ESR is also increased if levels
of
immunoglobulins
are very high, as
occurs in
multiple myeloma.
ESR is
therefore useful for helping to diagnose
these conditions as well as in monitor-
ing their treatment.
estradiol
The most important of the
oestrogen horm ones
, essential for the
healthy functioning of the female repro-
ductive system and breast development.
In synthetic form, estradiol is used to
treat symptoms and complications of
the
menopause
(see
horm one replace-
ment therapy)
and to stimulate sexual
development in female
hypogonadism
.
estriol
One of the
oestrogen hormones.
Estriol is the predominant oestrogen
produced during pregnancy. Synthetic
estriol is prescribed to treat symptoms
and complications of the
menopause
(see
horm one replacement therapy
) and
to stimulate sexual development in
female
hypogonadism
.
estrone
An
oestrogen horm one
. A syn-
thetic form is used to treat symptoms
and complications of the menopause
(see
horm one replacem ent therapy
).
ESW L
Extracorporeal shock wave litho-
tripsy (see
lithotripsy
).
ethambutol
A drug used in conjunction
with other drugs to treat
tuberculosis
.
Ethambutol rarely causes side-effects,
although it may occasionally result in
inflammation
of the
optic nerve,
leading
to blurred vision.
ethanol
The chemical name for the
alcohol
in alcoholic drinks.
ether
A colourless liquid that produces
unconsciousness when inhaled. Ether
was the first general anaesthetic.
ethinylestradiol
A synthetic form of
the female sex hormone
estradiol
. It is
most often used in
oral contraceptives
,
in which it is combined with a
progest-
ogen drug.
Less frequently, it is used in
horm one replacement therapy
.
ethosuximide
An
anticonvulsant drug
used to treat absence seizures
(petit mal
epilepsy
). Ethosuximide may cause nau-
sea and vomiting and, in rare cases,
affects production of blood cells in
bone marrow (see
anaemia, aplastic).
ethyl alcohol
Another name for
eth-
anol,
the alcohol in alcoholic drinks.
ethyl chloride
A colourless liquid used
as an
analgesic drug
. It is applied to the
skin as a spray to numb an area before
minor surgery or to relieve muscle pain.
It is also used to treat
larva migrans
, a
hookworm infection.
etidronate sodium
See
disodium eti-
dr on ate.
etretinate
A drug chemically related to
vitamin A, which is used mainly to treat
severe psoriasis. It is occasionally used
in the treatment of other disorders that
cause excessive thickening of the skin,
such as
ichthyosis.
Etretinate can cause liver damage and
a rise in blood fats. The drug should not
be taken during pregnancy because of
the risk of damage to the fetus.
eucalyptus
oil
A substance distilled
from the leaves of eucalyptus trees.
Because of its aromatic smell and
refreshing taste, it is used as a flavour-
ing, and - applied as a rub, inhaled as
vapour, or incorporated in tablets - is
also used in cough and cold remedies.
There is little evidence that it has any
curative properties, although it may
relieve symptoms.
210
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