EWING'S SARCOMA
EXERCISE
E
disorders, and to help confirm a diag-
nosis of
multiple sclerosis
.
Ewing's
sarcoma
A rare malignant
form of
bone cancer
.
It arises in a large
bone, usually the
femur
,
tibia
,
humerus
,
or a pelvic bone, and spreads to other
areas at an early stage. The condition is
most common in children aged 10-15.
An affected bone is painful and tender.
It may also become weakened and frac-
ture easily. Other symptoms include
weight loss, fever, and
anaemia
.
The sarcoma is diagnosed by
X-rays
and a
biopsy
. If cancer is found, the
whole skeleton is examined by X-rays
and
radionuclide scanning
,
and the
lungs viewed by
CT scanning
, to deter-
mine if, and how far, the cancer has
spread. Treatment is with
radiotherapy
and
anticancer drugs
.
If the cancer has
not spread, the outlook is good.
examination, physical
The part of a
medical consultation in which the doc-
tor looks, feels, and listens to various
parts of the patient's body to assess the
patient's condition or to gather infor-
mation to help make a
diagnosis
.
Most examinations include
palpation
,
by which the doctor examines relevant
parts of the body for signs such as
swelling, tenderness, or enlargement of
organs. In some cases,
percussion
of the
chest, or other parts of the body, may
be performed by tapping with the fin-
gers and then listening to the sound
produced.
Auscultation
may be used to
listen to blood flow through arteries
and sounds made by the heart and
lungs. The doctor may take the pulse or
blood pressure
, examine the eyes and
ears, and assess the strength and coor-
dination of the muscles.
exchange transfusion
A treatment for
haemolytic disease of the newborn
, in
which the infant's blood is replaced
with rhesus negative donor blood (see
rhesus incompatibility
).
It is used to
treat dangerously high levels of
bilirubin
in the blood and the severe
anaemia
which result from the condition.
excimer laser
A
laser
used to reshape
the
cornea
to correct
myopia
(short
sight) or
hypermetropia
(long sight) by
removing very thin layers of tissue from
the corneal surface (see
LASIK
;
PRK
).
excision
Surgical cutting out of dis-
eased tissue, such as a breast lump,
from surrounding healthy tissue.
excoriation
Injury to the surface of the
skin or a
mucous membrane
caused by
physical
abrasion
, such as scratching.
excretion
Discharge of waste material
from the body, including the by-prod-
ucts of digestion, waste products from
the repair of tissues, and excess water.
The
kidneys
excrete excess nitrogen
in the
urine
in the form of urea, along
with excess water, salts, some acids,
and most drugs. The
liver
excretes bile,
which contains waste products and bile
pigments formed from the breakdown
of red blood cells. Some of the bile is
passed from the body in the
faeces
. The
large
intestine
excretes undigested food,
some salts, and excess water in the
form of faeces. The
lungs
discharge car-
bon dioxide and water vapour into the
air.
Sweat glands
excrete salt and water
onto the surface of the skin as a method
of regulating the body's temperature.
exenteration
The surgical removal of
all organs and soft tissue in a body cavi-
ty, usually to arrest the growth of a
cancer
. It is sometimes used in
ophthal-
mology
when the eye and the contents
of the eye orbit are removed.
exercise
The performance of any physi-
cal activity that improves health or that
is used for recreation or for the correc-
tion of physical injury or deformity (see
physiotherapy
). Different types of exer-
cise have different effects on the body.
During aerobic exercise, such as jogging
or swimming, the heart and lungs work
faster and more efficiently to supply the
muscles' increased demand for oxygen;
regular aerobic exercise improves the
condition of both the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems. Exercises such as
weight training increase muscle strength
and endurance. Activities such as yoga
and pilates improve flexibility.
Regular aerobic exercise usually leads
to a reduction in blood pressure. It also
results in an increased amount of high-
density lipoprotein (
HDL
) in the blood,
which is thought to help protect against
atherosclerosis
and
myocardial infarc-
tion
.
Exercise can relieve the symptoms
of
peripheral vascular disease
and of
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