FEEDING, ARTIFICIAL
FEMORAL EPIPHYSIS, SLIPPED
that stimulates the hormone's release is
inhibited; the result is reduced hormone
production (negative feedback). The re-
verse process,(positive feedback) restores
the balance if the level of hormone
becomes too low.
feeding, artificial
The administration
of nutrients other than by mouth, usu-
ally by way of a tube passed through
the nose into the stomach or small
intestine. If long-term artificial feeding
is anticipated, a tube is inserted directly
into the stomach or upper small intes-
tine using endoscopic surgery. If the
gastrointestinal tract is not functioning,
nutrients must be introduced into the
bloodstream. This type of feeding is
known as
parenteral nutrition
.
Tube feeding may be necessary for
people who have gastrointestinal disor-
ders (for example, conditions resulting
in
malabsorption
)
or disorders affecting
the nervous system or kidneys. Prema-
ture babies often require tube feeding if
their sucking reflexes are undeveloped,
as do critically ill patients due to their
increased nutritional requirements. In-
travenous feeding is usually given when
large areas of the small intestine have
been damaged by disease or have been
surgically removed.
feeding, infant
A baby grows more
rapidly in its first year than at any future
time in its life. A good diet is essential
for healthy growth and development.
During the first 4 to
6
months, most
babies' nutritional requirements are met
by
milk
alone, whether by
breast-feeding
or
bottle-feeding
.
Both human milk and
artificial
milk
contain
carbohydrate,
protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals in
similar proportions. However, human
milk also contains antibodies and white
blood
cells
that
protect
the
baby
against infection. From
6
weeks, supple-
mentary vitamin D should be given to
breast-fed babies. Formula milk already
contains vitamin supplements.
At 1
year of age, a baby can be safely
fed with full-fat cow's milk. Vitamin sup-
plements should then be given until the
baby is established on a mixed diet.
Solids, initially in the form of purees
and wheat-free cereals, should be intro-
duced between 4 and
6
months of age,
depending on the birth weight, rate of
growth, and contentment with feeding.
By
6
months, the baby should be eating
true solids, such as chopped-up meat
and vegetables.
A few babies have an intolerance to
certain foods such as lactose or cow's
milk protein (see
food intolerance; nutri-
tional disorders
).
femoral artery
A major blood vessel
that supplies oxygenated blood to the
leg. The femoral artery is formed in the
pelvis from the iliac artery (the terminal
branch of the
aorta
). It then runs from
the groin, down in front of the thigh,
and passes behind the knee to become
the popliteal artery, which branches
again to supply the lower leg.
FEMORAL ARTERY
femoral epiphysis, slipped
Displace-
ment of the upper
epiphysis
(growing
end) of the
femur
(thigh bone). Such
displacement is rare; it usually affects
children between 11 and 13, and occurs
more often in boys and obese children.
The condition may also run in families.
During normal growth, the epiphysis is
separated from the shaft of the bone by
a plate of cartilage. This is an area of
relative weakness, so that a fall or other
injury can cause the epiphysis to slip
out of position. A limp develops, and
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