FENOPROFEN
FERTILIZATION
rheumatoid arthritis
,
osteoarthritis,
and
gout
.
Fenbufen is also used to reduce
pain and to help speed recovery follow-
ing muscle and ligament sprains. In
common with other NSAIDs, it can
cause bleeding from the stomach and
may also cause a rash.
fenoprofen
A
nonsteroidal anti-inflam-
matory drug
(NSAID) that is used to
relieve pain and stiffness caused, for
example, by
rheumatoid arthritis
,
osteo-
arthritis
, and
gout
. Fenoprofen is also
used to treat muscle and ligament
sprains; it reduces pain and helps to
speed recovery. In common with many
NSAIDs, fenoprofen may cause irrita-
tion of the stomach.
fentanyl
An
opioid
analgesic drug that
is given by injection for pain relief dur-
ing surgery and also to enhance general
anaesthesia (see
anaesthesia, general
).
Fentanyl is also used in the form of a
skin patch to control the severe chronic
pain of conditions such as cancer. In
common with other opioid drugs, fen-
tanyl
has side effects that include
depressed breathing, constipation, nau-
sea, and vomiting. The administration
of patches may be associated with local
irritation of the skin.
ferritin
A complex of
iron
and protein,
found mainly in the liver and spleen,
which is the principal form of iron stor-
age in the body.
ferrous fumarate
A form of
iron
given
in the form of an oral preparation to
treat iron-deficiency
anaemia
. Ferrous
fumarate can cause diarrhoea, constipa-
tion, and abdominal pain.
ferrous sulphate
Another name for iron
sulphate (see
iron
).
fertility
The ability to produce children
without undue difficulty.
A man's fertility depends on the pro-
duction of normal quantities of healthy
sperm
in the testes (see
testis
), which, in
turn, depends on adequate production
of
gonadotrophin hormones
by the pitu-
itary gland at the base of the brain.
Fertility in males is also dependent on
the ability to achieve an
erection
and to
ejaculate
semen
into the vagina during
sexual intercourse
.
Males become fertile
at puberty and usually remain so, but to
a lesser degree, well into old age.
A woman's ability to conceive depends
on normal
ovulation
(the monthly pro-
duction of a healthy
ovum
by
1
of the
ovaries
) and the ovum's unimpeded
passage down a fallopian tube towards
the uterus; on thinning of the mucus
surrounding the mouth of the cervix
to enable sperm to penetrate; and on
changes in the lining of the uterus
which prepare it for the implantation of
a fertilized ovum. These processes are
in turn dependent on normal produc-
tion of gonadotrophins by the pituitary
gland, and of the sex hormones
oestro-
gen
and
progesterone
by the ovaries.
Women become fertile at puberty, and
they remain so until the
menopause
around the age of 40 to 50. (See also
fertility drugs; irt'ertility.)
fertility drugs
A group of hormonal or
hormone-related drugs used to treat
some types of
infertility
.
In women, fertility drugs may be given
when abnormal hormone production by
the pituitary gland or ovaries disrupts
ovulation
or causes mucus around the
cervix to become so thick that sperm
cannot penetrate it. In men, fertility
drugs are less effective, but they may
be used when abnormal hormone pro-
duction by the pituitary gland or testes
interferes with sperm production. (See
also
clomifene
;
gonadotrophin
hor-
mones
;
testosterone
.)
fertilization
The union of a
sperm
and an
ovum
. In natural fertilization, the sperm
and ovum unite in the fallopian tube of
the woman following
sexual intercourse.
A single sperm penetrates the ovum by
releasing enzymes that can dissolve the
outer layers of the ovum. Once inside,
the sperm's nucleus fuses with that of the
ovum, and its empty body shell and tail
drop off. Then, the newly fertilized ovum,
called a zygote, forms an outer layer that
is impenetrable to other sperm. The zy-
gote undergoes repeated cell divisions
as it passes down the fallopian tube to
the uterus, where it implants and will
eventually grow into an embryo.
Fertilization may also occur as a result
of semen being artificially introduced
into the cervix (see
artificial insemina-
tion
)
or may take place in a laboratory
(see
in vitro fertilization).
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