FILM BADGE
FISTULA
metals is generally used for back teeth.
If a front tooth is chipped, a bonding
technique (see
bonding, dental
)
may be
used, in which plastic or porcelain
tooth-coloured material is attached to
the surface of the tooth.
film badge
A device that enables hos-
pital staff members to monitor their
exposure to radiation. Film badges are
worn by those people who work in X-ray
and radiotherapy departments. A badge
consists of a piece of photographic film
in a holder worn on the clothing. The
film has a fast (sensitive) emulsion on
1
side and a slow emulsion on the other.
Small doses of radiation blacken only
the fast emulsion; higher doses start to
blacken the slow emulsion and make
the fast emulsion opaque.
finasteride
A specific
enzyme
inhibitor
drug that prevents
testosterone
from being
converted into the more potent male
hormone, dihydrotestosterone. The drug
is used to treat noncancerous prostatic
enlargement (see
prostate, enlarged
),
im-
proving the flow of urine. Side effects
include impotence and decreased libido
and ejaculate volume.
finger
One of the digits of the
hand
. Each
finger has 3 phalanges (bones), which join
at hinge joints moved by muscle tendons,
and an artery, vein, and nerve running
down each side. The entire structure is
enclosed in skin with a
nail
at the tip.
Common finger injuries are
lacerations
,
fractures
, tendon ruptures, and
mallet
finger
.
Infections such as
paronychia
can
occur, and inflamed flexor tendons may
cause
trigger finger.
Congenital finger
disorders include
syndactyly
,
polydactyly
,
missing fingers, or a webbed appearance
due to deep membrane between the fin-
gers; other finger disorders include
rheumatoid arthritis
,
osteoarthritis
,
Ray-
naud's disease
,
and dactylitis (swelling)
due to
sickle cell anaemia
. Clubbing of
the fingers is a sign of chronic lung dis-
ease or some forms of congenital heart
disease. Tumours of the finger are rare
but may occur in
chondromatosis
.
finger-joint replacement
A surgical
procedure in which one or more arti-
ficial joints made of metal, plastic, or
silicone rubber are used to replace fin-
ger joints destroyed by disease, usually
rheumatoid arthritis
or
osteoarthritis
.
The procedure is usually successful in
relieving arthritic pain and enabling the
patient to use his or her hands again,
but it rarely restores normal movement.
fingerprint
An impression left on a
surface by the pattern of fine curved
ridges on the skin of the fingertips. The
ridges occur in 4 patterns: loops, arches,
whorls, and compounds (combinations
of the other 3). No 2 people, not even
identical twins, have the same finger-
prints. (See also
genetic fingerprinting.)
first aid
The immediate treatment of any
injury or sudden illness before profes-
sional medical care can be provided.
Most first aid consists of treating minor
injuries and
burns
, and
fractures
.
The aims of first-aid treatment in an
emergency are to preserve life, to pro-
tect the individual from further harm, to
provide reassurance, to make the victim
comfortable, to arrange for medical
help, and to find out as much as possible
about the circumstances of the accident
or injury. Various techniques can be used
to achieve these aims. For example, the
recovery position
helps to maintain an
open airway in an unconscious person
who is breathing;
artificial respiration
is
necessary if a person is not breathing.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
is essen-
tial if a person is not breathing and has
no heartbeat. Heavy bleeding can lead to
shock
but can be controlled by applying
pressure at appropriate
pressure points.
fish oil
A product occurring naturally in
some species of oily fish such as mack-
erel. Fish-oil preparations, which are
rich in omega-3 triglycerides, are used
as
lipid-lowering drugs.
fistula
An abnormal passage from an
internal organ to the body surface or be-
tween 2 organs. Fistulas may be present
from birth or may be acquired as a result
of tissue damage. Congenital types in-
clude
tracheoesophageal fistulas
, branchial
fistulas (see
branchial disorders
), and
thyroglossal fistulas (see
thyroglossal
disorders
). Acquired fistulas may result
from injury, infection, or cancer. Fistulas
between the intestine and the skin may
occur in
Crohn's disease.
Some types of
arteriovenous fistula
(between an artery
and a vein) are surgically constructed to
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