FRACTURE, DENTAL
FROZEN SECTION
fracture
;
pelvis
;
Pott's fracture
;
rib, frac-
ture of
;
skd.
1
, fracture
of.)
fracture, dental
A break in a tooth (see
teeth
)
most commonly caused by falling
onto a hard surface or by being hit in
the mouth with a hard object. Fractures
may involve the crown or the root of a
tooth, or both. Fractures of the enamel
can usually be repaired by bonding (see
bonding
,
dental
);
in some cases,
a
replacement crown may be fitted (see
crown,
dental
).
Pulpotomy
may
be
performed if the pulp of a tooth is dam-
aged. Fractures of the root may be
treated by splinting (see
splinting, den-
tal
),
root-canal treatment
, or removing
the tooth (see
extraction, dental)
.
fragile X syndrome
An inherited defect
of the
X chromosome
that causes learn-
ing difficulties. The disorder occurs
within families according to an X-linked
recessive pattern of inheritance (see
gen-
etic disorders
). Although mainly males
are affected, women can become carriers
of the genetic defect. In addition to hav-
ing learning difficulties, affected males
tend to be tall and physically strong, with
large testes, a prominent nose and jaw,
increased ear length, and are prone to
epileptic seizures. About a third of female
carriers show some intellectual impair-
ment. The condition cannot be treated.
freckle
A tiny patch of
pigmentation
that
occurs on sun-exposed skin. Freckles tend
to become more numerous with contin-
ued exposure to sunlight. A tendency to
freckling is inherited and occurs most
often in fair and red-haired people.
free-floating anxiety
Vague apprehen-
sion or tension, often associated with
generalized anxiety disorder
.
free radicals
Molecules that bind to and
destroy body cells. Free radicals can
derive from external sources such as
smoke, sunlight, and food, but they are
mostly produced in the body following
chemical reactions.
frequency
See
urination, frequent
.
Freudian slip
A slip of the tongue or a
minor error of action that could be what
the person really wanted to say or do.
Freudian theory
A discipline devel-
oped by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
that formed the basis of
psychoanalysis
.
Freud believed that feelings, thoughts,
and behaviour are controlled by uncon-
scious wishes and conflicts originating
in childhood. Problems occur when the
desires are not fulfilled or conflicts
remain unresolved into adulthood. The
essence of his theory concerns early
psychological development, particularly
sexual development. He also identified
3 components of personality: the
id
, the
ego
, and the
superego
. (See also
psy-
choanalytic theory; psychotherapy.)
friar's balsam
A name for tincture of
benzoin. Friar's balsam is used with hot
water as a
steam inhalation
to relieve
nasal congestion, acute rhinitis, sinu-
sitis, and to loosen coughs.
Friedreich's ataxia
A very rare inheri-
ted disease in which degeneration of
nerve fibres in the spinal cord causes
loss of coordinated movement and bal-
ance. Once symptoms have developed,
the disease becomes progressively more
severe. Treatment can help with the
symptoms but cannot alter the course
of the disease.
frigidity
Lack of desire for or inability
to become aroused during sexual stim-
ulation (see
sexual desire, inhibited
).
(See also
orgasm, lack
of.)
frontal
A term referring to the front part
of an organ (for example, the frontal
lobe of the
brain
).
frostbite
Damage to tissues caused by
extremely cold temperatures. Frostbite
can affect any part of the body, but the
extremities (the nose, ears, fingers, and
toes) are most susceptible. The first
symptoms of frostbite are a pins-and-
needles sensation, followed by complete
numbness. The skin appears white, cold,
and hard and then becomes red and
swollen. If damage is restricted to the
skin and immediately underlying tis-
sues, recovery may be complete. If
blood vessels are affected,
gangrene
may follow. In such cases, amputation
of the affected part may be necessary.
frottage
A sexual
deviation
in which an
individual rubs against another person
in order to achieve sexual arousal.
frozen section
A method of preparing
a
biopsy
specimen that provides a rapid
indication of whether or not a tissue,
such as a
breast lump
, is cancerous. Fro-
zen section can be undertaken during
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