FROZEN SHOULDER
FUNGI
an operation so that the results can be
used to determine the appropriate sur-
gical treatment.
frozen shoulder
Stiffness and pain in
the
shoulder
that makes normal move-
ment of the joint impossible. In severe
cases, the shoulder may be completely
rigid, and pain may be intense.
Frozen shoulder is caused by inflam-
mation and thickening of the lining of
the joint capsule. In some cases, it
occurs following a minor injury to the
shoulder or a
stroke.
The condition is
more common in middle-aged people
and those with
diabetes mellitus.
Moderate symptoms of frozen shoul-
der can be eased by exercise, by taking
analgesic drugs
and
nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs,
and by applying
ice-packs.
In severe cases, injections of
corticosteroid drugs
into the joint may
be used. Manipulation of the joint under
a general anaesthetic can restore mobil-
ity, but this treatment carries the risk of
increasing pain in the joint initially.
Recovery is often slow but the shoulder
is usually back to normal and pain free
within
2
years.
frusemide
An alternative name for
furo-
semide,
a
diuretic drug.
frustration
A deep feeling of discon-
tent and tension because of unresolved
problems, unfulfilled needs, or because
the path to a goal is blocked. In some
people, frustration may lead to
regres-
sion
,
aggression
, or
depression
.
FSH
An abbreviation for
follicle-stimulat-
ing hormone,
a
gonadotrophin hormone
produced by the pituitary gland.
fugue
An episode of altered conscious-
ness in which a person apparently
purposefully wanders away from home
or work and, in some cases, adopts a
new identity. When the fugue ends, the
person has no recollection of what has
occurred. Fugues are uncommon, and
causes include
dissociative disorders,
temporal lobe epilepsy
,
depression
,
head
injury,
and
dementia.
(See also
amnesia.)
fulminant
A term used to describe a
disorder that develops and progresses
suddenly and with great severity. A viru-
lent infection, a severe form of arthritis,
or a cancer that has spread rapidly is
usually described as being fulminant.
fumes
See
pollution
.
functional disorders
A term for any
illness in which there is no evidence of
organic disturbance even though physi-
cal performance is impaired.
fundus
The part of a hollow body organ,
such as the stomach, that is farthest
away from its opening. An optic fundus
is the appearance of the retina when
viewed through an ophthalmoscope.
fungal infections
Diseases that are
caused by the multiplication and spread
of
fungi
. Some fungi are harmlessly pre-
sent all the time in areas of the body
such as the mouth, skin, intestines, and
vagina. However, they are prevented from
multiplying by competition from bacte-
ria. Other fungi are dealt with by the
body's
immune system
.
Fungal infections are therefore more
common and serious in people taking
long-term
antibiotic drugs
(which des-
troy the bacterial competition) and in
those whose immune systems are sup-
pressed by
immunosuppressant drugs
,
corticosteroid drugs
, or by a disorder such
as
AIDS
.
Such serious fungal infections
are described as
opportunistic infections
.
Some fungal infections are more com-
mon in people with
diabetes mellitus
.
Fungal infections can be classified into
superficial (affecting skin, hair, nails, in-
side of the mouth, and genital organs);
subcutaneous (beneath the skin); and
deep (affecting internal organs).
The main superficial infections are
tinea
(including ringworm and athlete's foot)
and
candidiasis
(thrush), both of which
are common. Subcutaneous infections,
which are rare, include
sporotrichosis
and
mycetoma
.
Deep infections are un-
common but can be serious and include
aspergillosis
,
histoplasmosis
,
cryptococ-
cosis
, and
blastomycosis
. The fungal
spores enter the body by inhalation.
Treatment of fungal infections is with
antifungal drugs,
either used topically
on the infected area or given by mouth
for generalized infections.
fungi
Simple parasitic life-forms that
include mushrooms, toadstools, yeasts,
and moulds. Disease-causing fungi can
be divided into
2
groups: filamentous
fungi and yeasts. Filamentous fungi are
made up of branching threads known as
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