GANSER'S SYNDROME
GASTROENTERITIS
an
embolism
.
Wet gangrene develops
when dry gangrene or a wound becomes
infected
by
bacteria
.
The
gangrene
spreads and gives off an unpleasant
smell. There may be redness, swelling,
and oozing pus around the blackened
area. A virulent type called gas gan-
grene is caused by a bacterium that
destroys muscles and produces a foul-
smelling gas.
Treatment of dry gangrene consists of
attempting to improve the circulation
to the affected area before the tissues
die.
Antibiotic drugs
can prevent wet
gangrene from setting in. A
mputation
of
the affected part and the surrounding
tissue is necessary.
Ganser's syndrome
A rare
factitious
disorder
in which a person seeks, con-
sciously or unconsciously, to mislead
others about his or her mental state and
may simulate symptoms of
psychosis
.
Gardnerella vaginalis
A
bacterium
that
is often found in the vaginal discharge
of women with nonspecific
vaginitis
.
gargle
A liquid preparation to wash and
freshen the mouth and throat. Some
gargles contain
antiseptics
or local
anaes-
thetics
to relieve sore throats.
gas-and-air
A mixture of
nitrous oxide
and
oxygen
that is used mainly used for
temporary emergency pain relief.
gastrectomy
Removal of the
stomach
(total gastrectomy) or, more commonly,
part of the stomach (partial gastrec-
tomy). Total gastrectomy is used to
treat some
stomach cancers
. Partial gas-
trectomy used to be a treatment for
peptic ulcers
but has
largely been
replaced by drug treatment.
Possible postoperative complications
are fullness and discomfort after meals;
regurgitation of
bile
, which may lead to
gastritis
,
oesophagitis
, and vomiting of
bile; diarrhoea; and
dumping syndrome
.
Other complications
include
malab-
sorption
, which may lead to
anaemia
or
osteoporosis
. After total gastrectomy,
patients cannot absorb vitamin B
12
and
are given it in the form of injections for
the rest of their lives.
gastric erosion
A break in the surface
layer of the membrane lining the
stom-
ach
.
A break deeper than this layer is
called a gastric ulcer (see
peptic ulcer
).
Gastric erosions occur in some cases of
gastritis
. Many erosions result from
ingestion of
alcohol
,
iron
tablets, or
aspirin
.
The physical stress of serious
illness, such as
kidney failure
, or of
burns
may bring on an erosion. Often
there are no symptoms, but erosions
may bleed, causing
vomiting of blood
or
blood in the faeces. Persistent loss of
blood may lead to
anaemia
. Gastric
erosions are diagnosed by
gastroscopy
.
They usually heal in a few days when
they are treated with
antacid drugs
and
ulcer-healing drugs
.
gastric ulcer
See
peptic ulcer
.
gastrin
A
hormone
produced by cells in
the
stomach
lining. Gastrin causes the
stomach to produce more acid and
helps to propel food through the diges-
tive tract.
(See also
gastrointestinal
hormones
.
)
gastritis
Inflammation
of the
stomach
lining. This may be
acute
or
chronic
.
Acute gastritis may be caused by irrita-
tion of the stomach lining by drugs,
usually
aspirin
or other NSAIDs; by
alco-
ho
i;
or by infection with a
Helicobacter
bacterium. Severe physical stress, such
as
burns
or
liver failure,
can bring on
gastritis. Chronic gastritis may be due
to prolonged irritation of the stomach
by alcohol, tobacco-
smoking
,
or
bile
;
by
an
autoimmune disorder
that damages
the stomach lining (see
anaemia, mega-
loblastic
); or by degeneration of the
lining with age.
Symptoms include discomfort in the
upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting.
In acute gastritis, the faeces may be
blackened by blood lost from the stom-
ach; in chronic gastritis, slow blood loss
may lead to anaemia (see
anaemia,
iron-deficiency
).
Diagnosis is made with
gastroscopy
,
during which a
biopsy
of
the stomach lining may be performed.
Ulcer-healing drugs
may be given.
gastroenteritis
Inflammation
of
the
stomach
and intestines, usually causing
sudden upsets that last for 2 or 3 days.
Dysentery
,
typhoid fever
,
cholera
,
food
poisoning
,
and
travellers' diarrhoea
are
all forms of gastroenteritis. The illness
may be caused by any of a variety of
bacteria
, bacterial
toxins
,
viruses
, and
other organisms in food or water.
G
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