GASTROENTEROLOGY
GAVAGE
G
Appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, cramps,
and diarrhoea are the usual symptoms.
Symptom onset and severity depends
on the cause; symptoms may be mild or
so severe that
dehydration, shock,
and
collapse occur. Mild cases usually require
rest and
rehydration therapy
only. For
severe illness, treatment in hospital
may be necessary, with fluids given by
intravenous infusion. Antibiotic drugs
may
be given for some bacterial infections,
but others need no specific treatment.
gastroenterology
The
study of
the
digestive system
and the diseases and
disorders affecting it.
gastroenterostomy
Surgery to create a
connection between the
stomach
and
the
jejunum
, sometimes combined with
partial
gastrectomy
. The operation was
formerly performed to treat duodenal
ulcer (see
peptic ulcer
) but is now rare.
gastrointestinal hormones
A group
of
hormones
released from specialized
cells in the
stomach
,
pancreas
, and intes-
tine that control various functions of
the digestive organs.
Gastrin
,
secretin
,
and
cholecystokinin
are the best known
of these hormones.
gastrointestinal tract
The part of the
digestive system
consisting of the
mouth
,
oesophagus
,
stomach
, and
intestine
.
gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
(GORD
) The medical term for
acid reflux
.
gastroscopy
Examination of the
stom-
ach
using a type of
endoscope
inserted
through the mouth. Although the term
specifies examination of the stomach,
the
oesophagus
and
duodenum
are also
inspected during the procedure, which
is more correctly known as OGD (see
oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
). Gastro-
scopy, in which the patient is usually
sedated, is used to investigate symptoms
such as bleeding from the upper gas-
trointestinal tract and disorders of the
oesophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
Attachments to the instrument enable
a
biopsy
to be taken and treatments
such as
laser treatment
to be carried out.
A gastroscope may also be used to ease
the passage of a gastric feeding tube
through the skin (see
gastrostomy
).
gastrostomy
An opening in the
stom-
ach
made surgically, usually connecting
the stomach to the outside so that a
feeding tube can be passed into the
stomach or small intestine. Gastrosto-
my may be performed on people who
cannot eat properly due to oesophageal
cancer (see
oesophagus, cancer of
) or
who are unable to chew and swallow due
to a
stroke.
(See also
feeding, artficial.)
Gaucher's disease
A
genetic disorder
in which the lack of the
enzyme
gluco-
cerebrosidase leads to accumulation of
a fatty substance, glucosylceramide, in
the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and,
sometimes, in the brain. It is treated by
regular injections of the missing enzyme.
gauze
An absorbent, open-weave fabric,
usually made of cotton. Sterilized gauze
is often used as a
dressing
for wounds.
gavage
The process of feeding liquids
through a
nasogastric tube
. (See
feeding,
artficial.
)
Gavage can also refer to
hj/p
eralim en tation.
GASTROSCOPY
Monitor
Endoscope
Site of
intravenous
sedation
Mouth
guard
ROUTE OF
ENDOSCOPE
246
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