GERM CELL TUMOUR
GINGIVITIS
G
a gamete or any cell that is undergoing
gametogenesis (the process by which
gametes are formed).
germ cell tumour
A growth comprised
of immature
sperm
cells in the male
testis
or of immature
ova
in the female
ovary
. A
seminoma
is one type of germ
cell tumour (see
testis, cancer of
).
gerontology
The study of
aging.
(See
also
geriatric medicine.)
Gestalt theory
A school of
psychology
that emphasizes viewing things as a
whole rather than breaking them down
into collections of stimuli and responses.
Gestalt therapy aims to increase self-
awareness by looking at all aspects of
an individual in his or her environment.
GIARDIA LAMBLIA
gestation
The period of about 9 months
from
conception
to birth, during which
the infant develops in the
uterus
.
(See
also
embryo
;
fetus
;
pregnancy
.)
gestational
diabetes
Diabetes
that
develops for the first time during preg-
nancy, usually clearing up after delivery.
(See
diabetic pregnancy.)
gestodene
A
progestogen drug
used
with the oestrogen drug
ethinylestradiol
in low-strength combined
oral contra-
ceptives
.
Gestodene is reported to have
a slightly higher risk of venous
throm-
boembolism
than older drugs.
giant cell arteritis
An alternative name
for
temporal arteritis
.
giardiasis
An infection of the small
intestine caused by the
protozoan
para-
site
GIARDIA LAMBLIA.
Giardiasis is spread
by eating or drinking
GIARDIASIS
food or water that
Lining of small
intestine t
Giardia
parasite
is contaminated or
by way of direct
contact with some-
one who is infected.
Most of those in-
fected do not have
symptoms. If, how-
ever, symptoms do
occur, they begin
1-3 days after in-
fection and include
diarrhoea and wind.
The faeces of those
infected tend to be
highly foul-smelling,
greasy, and float.
Abdominal discom-
fort, cramps, and swelling, loss of appe-
tite, and nausea may also occur. In some
cases, giardiasis becomes
chronic
.
Infection is diagnosed from examina-
tion of a faecal sample or by a
jejunal
biopsy
.
Acute
giardiasis usually clears up
without treatment, but the drug
metro-
nidazole
quickly relieves symptoms and
prevents the spread of infection.
giddiness
See
dizziness
.
GIFT
See
gamete intrafallopian transfer
.
gigantism
Excessive growth (especially
in height), resulting from overprod-
uction
of
growth
hormone
during
childhood or adolescence by a tumour
of the pituitary gland (see
pituitary
tumours
).
Untreated, the tumour may
compress
other
hormone-producing
cells in the pituitary gland, causing
symptoms of hormone deficiency (see
hypopituitarism
). The condition may be
treated with drugs such as
bromo-
criptine
that block the release of growth
hormone, or by surgery or
radiotherapy
to remove or destroy the tumour. See
also
acromegaly
.
Gilbert's disease
A common inherited
condition that affects the way in which
bilirubin
is processed by the
liver
. Usually
there are no symptoms, but
jaundice
may be brought on by an unrelated ill-
ness. Sufferers are otherwise healthy.
No treatment is necessary.
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome
A
rare, inherited neurological disorder. It
starts in childhood with repetitive gri-
maces and tics. Involuntary barks, grunts,
or other noises may appear as the dis-
ease progresses. In some cases, the
sufferer has episodes of issuing foul
language. The syndrome is more com-
mon in males. It is usually of lifelong
duration, but
antipsychotic drugs
can
help in some cases.
gingiva
The Latin name for the
gums
.
gingival hyperplasia
See
hyperplasia,
gingival
.
gingivectomy
The surgical removal of
part of the
gum
margin. Gingivectomy
may be used to treat severe cases of
gingival
hyperplasia
or to remove pock-
ets of infected gum in advanced cases
of
periodontitis
.
gingivitis
Inflammation of the
gums
.
Gingivitis is a reversible stage of gum
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