GONADORELIN
GOUT
G
gonadorelin
The hormone released by
the
hypothalamus
that stimulates the
pituitary gland to secrete the
gonado-
trophin hormones
follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hor-
mone (LH).
Gonadorelin can be given by injection
and is used to investigate suspected
disease of the hypothalamus and also
to stimulate the
ovaries
in the treatment
of infertility. Synthesized gonadorelins
(known as gonadorelin analogues) are
used to treat
endometriosis
and hormone-
dependent
cancers
including
breast
cancer
and
prostate cancer
.
gonadotrophin hormones
Hormones
that stimulate cell activity in the
ovaries
and
testes
. Gonadotrophins are essen-
tial for fertility. The two most important
gonadotrophins are follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hor-
mone (LH), which are secreted by the
pituitary gland
.
Another gonadotrophin,
HCG (see
gonadotrophin, human chori-
onic
),
is produced by the placenta
during pregnancy. Certain gonadotro-
phins
are
used
as
drugs
in
the
treatment of
infertility
.
gonadotrophin, human chorionic
A
hormone
produced by the
placenta
in
early
pregnancy
.
Human chorionic gon-
adotrophin (HCG) stimulates the
ovaries
to produce
oestrogen
and
progesterone
,
which are needed for a healthy preg-
nancy. HCG is excreted in the urine, and
its presence in urine is the basis of
pregnancy tests on urine samples.
gonads
The sex glands - the
testes
in
men and the
ovaries
in women.
gonorrhoea
One of the most common
sexually transmitted infections
. Gonorrh-
oea, caused by the bacterium
neisseria
gonorrhoeae,
is most often transmit-
ted during sexual activity, including oral
and anal sex. An infected woman may
also transmit the disease to her baby
during childbirth.
Gonorrhoea has an incubation period
of 2-10 days. In men, symptoms include
a discharge from the
urethra
and pain
on passing urine. Many infected women
have no symptoms; if symptoms are
present, they usually consist of vaginal
discharge or a burning sensation on
passing urine. Infection acquired by
anal sex can cause gonococcal
proctitis
.
Oral sex with an infected person may
lead to gonococcal
pharyngitis
.
A baby
exposed to infection during its birth
may acquire the eye infection gonoc-
occal
ophthalmia
.
Untreated gonorrhoea may spread to
other parts of the body. In men, it may
cause
prostatitis
or
epididymo-orchitis
,
affecting fertility. In women, untreated
gonorrhoea results in
pelvic inflamma-
tory disease
, causing damage to the
fallopian tubes
.
This increases the risk of
ectopic pregnancy
and may lead to
infertility
.
Gonococcal bacteria in the
bloodstream may result in
septicaemia
or
septic arthritis
.
Tests are performed on a sample of
discharge or on swabs taken from the
urethra,
cervix
, or
rectum
in order to
confirm the diagnosis. Gonorrhoea is
treated with
antibiotic drugs
.
Goodpasture's syndrome
A rare
auto-
immune disorder
causing
inflammation
of the glomeruli in the kidney (see
glomerulus
)
and the alveoli in the lungs,
and
anaemia
.
It is a serious disease;
unless treated early it may lead to life-
threatening bleeding into the lungs and
progressive
kidney failure
. The disease is
most common in young men, but can
develop at any age and in women.
Sometimes, it responds to treatment
with
immunosuppressant
drugs
and
plasmapheresis
.
People who have severe
or repeated attacks require
dialysis
and,
eventually, a
kidney transplant
.
GORD
The abbreviation for gastro-oes-
ophageal reflux disease (see
acid reflux
).
goserelin
A synthetic drug chemically
related to the hypothalmic hormone
gonadorelin
.
Goserelin is used to treat
breast
cancer
and
prostate
cancer
,
fibroids
, infertility, and
endometriosis
.
Adverse effects include loss of bone
density after prolonged application.
gout
A common
metabolic disorder
that
causes attacks of
arthritis
, usually in a
single joint (most commonly the base
of the big toe). Gout is due to high lev-
els of uric acid in the blood (see
hyperuricaemia
);
the arthritis is due to
the deposition of uric acid crystals in
joint tissue. The affected joint is red,
swollen, and tender. Attacks last a few
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