GRAFTING
GRANULOMA INGUINALE
days and often recur. They are some-
times accompanied by fever. Gout may
be associated with kidney stones (see
calculus, urinary tract
),
and affects 10
times more men than women. In men, it
occurs any time after
puberty
;
in women
it usually occurs after the
menopause
.
The condition tends to run in families.
The diagnosis is confirmed by tests on
blood or fluid from the affected joint to
measure uric acid levels. Pain and in-
flammation can usually be controlled
by
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
or
colchicine.
If these are ineffective, a
corticosteroid
may be injected into the
joint. Long-term treatment with drugs
such as
allopurinol
or
probenecid
can
stop or reduce the frequency of attacks.
GOUT
grafting
The process of transplanting
healthy tissue from one part of the body
to another (autografting), from one per-
son to another (allografting), or from an
animal to a person (xenografting).
Grafting is used to repair or replace
diseased, damaged, or defective tissues
or organs. The most common operations
of this type are
skin graft, bone graft,
bone marrow transplant, corneal graft,
kidney transplant, heart transplant, liver
transplant, heart-lung transplant, heart-
valve surgery,
and
microsurgery
on
blood vessels and nerves.
With autografting, the grafted tissue is
usually assimilated well into the sur-
rounding tissue at the new site. The
general risks of tissue rejection follow-
ing
other
forms
of
grafting
are
discussed in
transplant surgery
.
graft-versus-host disease
A compli-
cation of a
bone marrow transplant
in
which
immune system
cells in the trans-
planted marrow attack the recipient's
tissues. Graft-versus-host (GVH) disease
may occur soon after transplantation or
appear some months later. The first
sign is usually a skin rash. This may be
followed by diarrhoea, abdominal pain,
jaundice
,
inflammation
of the eyes and
mouth, and breathlessness.
GVH disease can usually be prevented
by administration of
immunosuppres-
sant drugs
.
If the disease develops, it
can be treated with
corticosteroid drugs
and immunosuppressant drugs such as
ciclosporin
In some cases, however, it
can be difficult to control.
Gram's stain
An
iodine
-based stain that
is used to differentiate between types of
bacterium
.
grand mal
A type of epileptic seizure
(see
epilepsy
) in which the sufferer falls
unconscious and has generalized jerky
muscle contractions. The seizure may
last for a few minutes; the person may
have no recall of it on awakening.
granulation
tissue
A mass of red,
moist, granular tissue that develops on
the surface of an ulcer or open
wound
during the process of
healing
.
granulocyte
A type of white
blood cell
.
granuloma
An aggregation of cells of a
type associated with chronic
inflamma-
tion
.
They usually occur as a reaction to
certain infections, such as
tuberculosis
,
or a foreign body, such as a suture, but
they may develop for unknown reasons
in conditions such as
sarcoidosis
.
A pyogenic granuloma is an excess of
granulation tissue developing at the
site of an injury to the skin or mucous
membrane. (See also
granuloma annu-
lare
;
granuloma inguinale
.)
granuloma annulare
A harmless skin
condition characterized by a circular,
raised area of skin, which spreads out-
wards to form a ring. The disorder occurs
most commonly in children, usually on
the hands. The cause is unknown. No
treatment is necessary. In most cases,
the affected skin heals completely over
a period of several months or years.
granuloma inguinale
A
sexually trans-
mitted infection
that causes ulceration
of the genitals. The infection is caused
by
CALYMMATOBACTERIUM GRANULOMATIS
,
also known as Donovan's bodies. Gran-
uloma inguinale is common in parts of
G
257
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