GRAVES' DISEASE
GROMMET
G
the tropics but is rare in developed
countries. The antibiotics
tetracycline
or
erythromycin
are effective treatments.
Graves' disease
An
autoimmune dis-
order
that is characterized by toxic
goitre
(an overactive and enlarged thy-
roid gland), excessive production of
thyroid hormones leading to
thyrotoxi-
cosis
,
and
exophthalmos
.
gravida
The medical term for a pregnant
woman. The term gravida is often com-
bined with a prefix to indicate the total
number of pregnancies a woman has
undergone (including the present one).
For example, a primigravida is a woman
who is pregnant for the first time.
gray
An SI unit of radiation dosage (see
radiation unit
).
greenstick fracture
A type of
fracture
that occurs when a long bone in the
arm or the leg bends and cracks on one
side only. This type of fracture occurs
only in children, whose bones are still
growing and flexible.
grey matter
Regions of the
central ner-
vous system
consisting principally of
closely packed and interconnected
nerve
cell bodies and their branching den-
drites, rather than their filamentous
axons
,
which make up the
white matter
.
Grey matter is mostly found in the outer
layers of the
cerebrum
(the main mass
of the
brain
and the region responsible
for advanced mental functions) and
deeper regions of the brain, such as the
basal ganglia. Grey matter also makes
up the inner core of the
spinal cord
.
GREY MATTER
Grey matter
White matter
Basal ganglia
(grey matter)
Cerebellum
- Spinal cord
SECTION THROUGH BRAIN
Brain stem
grief
An intensely painful emotion, usu-
ally caused by loss of a loved one. (See
bereavement.)
grip
The ability of the
hand
to hold
objects firmly. The hand is well adapted
for gripping, with an opposable thumb
(one that is able to touch each of the
fingers), specialized skin on the palm
and fingers to provide adhesion, and a
complex system of muscles, tendons,
joints, and nerves that enables precise
movements of the
digits
.
Gripping ability can be reduced by any
condition that causes muscular weak-
ness or impairment of sensation in the
palms or fingers (e.g. a
stroke
or
nerve
injury
) or by disorders that affect the
bones or joints of the hand or wrist,
such as
arthritis
or a
fracture
.
gripe
Severe abdominal pain (see
colic
).
griseofulvin
A drug given orally to
treat some
fungal infections
. Griseoful-
vin is particularly useful for infections
affecting the scalp, beard, palms, soles
of the feet, and nails. Common side
effects are headache, dry mouth, abdom-
inal pain, and
photosensitivity
.
Long-term
treatment with the drug may cause liver
or bone marrow damage.
groin
The hollow between the lower
abdomen and top of the thigh.
groin, lump in the
A swelling in the
groin
, most commonly due to enlarge-
ment of a lymph node as a result of an
infection (see
glands, swollen
). Another
common cause is a
hernia
.
Rarely, in
men, an undescended testis may be the
cause (see
testis, undescended
). Treat-
ment depends on the cause.
groin strain
Pain and tenderness in
the
groin
as a result of overstretching
of a muscle, typically while running or
playing sports. The
muscles
commonly
affected are the adductors and the rec-
tus femoris. Groin strain is usually
treated with
physiotherapy
, but recovery
may be slow.
grommet
A small tube that may be
inserted through an incision in the
eardrum
during surgery to treat
glue
ear
, usually in children. The grommet
equalizes the pressure on both sides of
the eardrum, permitting mucus to drain
down the
eustachian tube
into the back
of the throat. The tubes are usually
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