HALLUX VALGUS
HAND-ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME
as a result of
osteoarthritis
.
The joint is
usually tender and swollen. Treatment
of hallux rigidus comprises resting the
toe and wearing a support insert in
the shoe. Surgery may be required.
hallux valgus
A deformity of the big
toe
in which the joint at the base projects
out from the foot, and the top of the toe
turns inwards. The condition is more
common in women, because it is usually
associated with wearing narrow, pointed,
high-heeled shoes, but it may be caused
by an inherited weakness in the joint. A
hallux valgus often leads to formation
of a
bunion
or to
osteoarthritis
in the
joint, causing pain and limiting foot
movement. Severe deformity may be cor-
rected by
osteotomy
or
arthrodesis
.
haloperidol An
antipsychotic drug
used
to treat mental illnesses such as
schizo-
phrenia
and
mania.
Haloperidol is also
given to control symptoms of
Gilles de
la Tourette's s^mdrome
and, in small
doses, to sedate people who are aggres-
sive as a result of
dementia.
Side effects
include drowsiness,
lethargy, weight
gain, dizziness, and
parkinsonism.
halothane A colourless liquid inhaled as
a vapour to induce and maintain general
anaesthesia (see
anaesthesia
,
general).
ham artoma A noncancerous mass, re-
sembling a tumour, which consists of
an overgrowth of tissues that are nor-
mally found in the affected part of the
body. Hamartomas are common in the
skin (the most common is a
haem an-
gioma),
but they also occur in the lungs,
heart, or kidneys.
hammer-toe
A deformity of the
toe
(usually the second toe) in which the
main joint stays bent due to a
tendon
abnormality. A painful
corn
often devel-
ops on this joint. A protective pad can
ease pressure on the joint and relieve
pain, but surgery may be needed if the
pain is persistent.
hamstring muscles
A group of
muscles
at the back of the thigh. The upper ends
of the hamstring muscles are attached
by
tendons
to the
pelvis
;
the lower ends
are attached by tendons called ham-
strings to the
tibia
and
fibula
. The
hamstring muscles bend the knee and
swing the leg backwards from the thigh.
Tearing of the hamstring muscles is
common in sports. Repeated strenuous
exercise may sprain the muscles (see
overuse injury).
hand
The hand is made up of the
wrist
,
palm, and fingers. Movement of the hand
is achieved mainly by
tendons
that attach
the muscles of the forearm to the bones
of the hand (the carpals, metacarpals,
and phalanges) or by short muscles in
the palm of the hand.
The hands are highly susceptible to
injury.
Dermatitis
is also common. The
hand may be affected by
Dupuytren's
contracture
or
Volkmann's contracture.
Degeneration of a tendon sheath on the
upper side of the wrist may cause a
harmless swelling called a
ganglion.
Osteoarthritis
commonly affects the joint
at the base of the thumb.
Rheumatoid
arthritis
may cause deformity.
H
HAND
Metacarpals
Phalanges
BONES OF THE HAND
hand-arm vibration syndrome
Pain
and numbness in the
hand
and arm due
to prolonged use of vibrating tools.
Symptoms often also include blue or
white coloration of the fingers and a
tingling sensation in affected areas.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome tends to
develop slowly over years and is the
result of repeated damage to blood ves-
sels and nerves. Exposure to cold tends
to aggravate the condition. There is no
specific treatment, but avoiding vibrat-
ing tools is essential to prevent the
disease progressing. In some cases,
calcium
channel
blockers
may
help
relieve some symptoms.
267
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