AMOXYCILLIN
AMYLOIDOSIS
including
bronchitis, cystitis,
and ear and
skin infections. Allergy to amoxicillin
causes a blotchy rash and, rarely, fever,
swelling of the mouth and tongue, itch-
ing, and breathing difficulty,
amoxycillin See
amoxicillin.
amphetamine drugs See
amfetamine
drugs.
amphotericin B A drug used to treat
fungal infections. Lozenges are used for
candidiasis
of the mouth. Life-threaten-
ing infections, such as
cryptococcosis
and
histoplasmosis,
are treated by injec-
tion. Adverse effects may occur with
injection and include vomiting, fever,
headache, and, rarely, seizures,
ampicillin A
penicillin drug
commonly
used to treat
cystitis, bronchitis,
and ear
infections.
Diarrhoea
is a
common
adverse effect of ampicillin. Some peo-
ple are allergic to it and suffer from
rash, fever, swelling of the mouth and
tongue, itching, and breathing difficulty,
ampulla An enlarged, flask-shaped area
at the end of a tubular structure or
canal. There are several ampullae in the
body, including at the end of the fallo-
pian tubes, at the opening of the bile
duct into the intestine, and on each of
the semicircular canals of the inner ear.
LOCATION
amputation Surgical removal of part or
all of a limb. Amputation is necessary if
peripheral vascular disease
as a result of
atherosclerosis
or
diabetes mellitus
has
impaired the blood supply to a limb. If
blood supply cannot be restored, ampu-
tation is carried out to prevent the
development of
gangrene.
Amputation
may also be needed if a limb has been
irreparably damaged in an accident.
For some time after amputation, there
may be an unpleasant sensation that the
limb is still present, a phenomenon
known as "phantom limb". A prosthesis
(see
limb, artificial)
is usually fitted
when the stump has healed,
amputation, congenital The separa-
tion of a body part (usually a limb,
finger, or toe) from the rest of the body,
as a result of the part's blood supply
being blocked by a band of
amnion
(fetal membrane) in the uterus. The
affected part may be completely separ-
ated or show the marks of the "amniotic
band" after birth. (See also
limb defects.)
amputation, traumatic Loss of a fin-
ger, toe, or limb through injury. (See
also
microsurgery.)
amylase An
enzyme
found in
saliva
and
pancreatic secretions (see
pancreas).
It
helps to digest dietary starch, breaking
it down into smaller components such
as the sugars
glucose
and maltose,
amyl nitrite A
nitrate drug
formerly pre-
scribed to relieve
angina.
Because amyl
nitrite frequently causes adverse effects,
it has been superseded by other drugs. It
is sometimes abused for its effect of
intensifying pleasure during orgasm,
amyloidosis An uncommon disease in
which a substance called amyloid, com-
posed of fibrous protein, accumulates
in tissues and organs, including the
liver, kidneys, tongue, spleen, and heart.
Amyloidosis may occur for no known
reason, in which case it is called primary;
more commonly, it is a complication of
some other disease, and in such cases
it is called secondary. Conditions that
may lead to amyloidosis include
multi-
ple myeloma
(a cancer of bone marrow),
rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis,
and
some other
longstanding
infections,
such as chronic
osteomyelitis.
The symptoms of amyloidosis vary,
depending on the organs affected and
the duration of the condition. Deposits
of amyloid in the kidneys may cause
kidney failure,
which may be fatal.
There is no treatment, but secondary
amyloidosis can be halted if the under-
lying disorder is treated.
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