HODGKIN’S DISEASE
HOMOZYGOTE
or constant dripping of mucus from the
nasal passages.
Pofysps
on the vocal cords
may also cause hoarseness. In people
with
tyspottymoidism,
hoarseness can
result from formation of tissue on the
vocal cords. In young children, hoarse-
ness may be a symptom of
croup.
Occasionally persistent hoarseness in
adults has a more serious cause, such
as cancer of the larynx (see
larynx, can-
cer of), ttymoid cancer,
or
lung cancer.
Resting the voice helps in strain- or
laryngitis- related cases. If hoarseness
persists for more than 2 weeks, a doctor
should be consulted. A
laryngoscopy
may be performed to exclude a serious
underlying cause .
Hodgkin's disease An uncommon, can-
cerous disorder in which there is a
proliferation of cells in the lymphoid
tissue (found mainly in the
lymph nodes
and
spleen).
Men are affected more than
women. The cause is unknown.
The most common sign is the painless
enlargement of lymph nodes, typically
in the neck or armpits. There may be a
general feeling of illness, with fever,
weight loss, and night sweats. There
may also be generalized itching. As the
disease progresses, the
immune system
becomes increasingly impaired and life-
threatening complications may result
from normally trivial infections.
Diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease depends
on the identification of characteristic cells
in a
biopsy
of affected tissue. The extent
of the disease (its
stage
) can be assessed
by
chest X-ray, CT scanning
or
MRI
of
the abdomen, a
bone marrow biopsy
and
a
liver biopsy.
If the disease is localized
to a small area,
radiotherapy
is usually
curative. If the disease has spread to
involve many organs, long-term treat-
ment with
anticancer drugs
is needed.
(See also Ij
mnphoma, non-Hodgkin's.)
hole in the heart The common name
for a
septal defect.
holistic medicine A form of therapy
that treats the whole person, not just
specific disease symptoms. A holistic
approach is emphasized by many prac-
titioners of
complementary m edicine.
Holter monitor A wearable device used
in
ambulatory electrocardiography
(
ECG)
to record the heart's electrical activity
HOLTER MONITOR
continuously for 24 hours or longer. The
monitor records by means of electrodes
attached to the chest and allows the
detection of intermittent
arrhtyhmias.
homeopathy A system of
complementary'
medicine.
Homeopathy involves admin-
istering minute doses of medicines
which, in a healthy person, would be
capable of inducing symptoms of the
condition that is being treated,
hom eostasis The automatic processes
by which the body maintains a constant
internal environment despite external
changes. Homeostasis regulates condi-
tions such as temperature and acidity by
negative feedback. For example, when the
body overheats,
sweating
is stimulated
until the temperature returns to normal.
Homeostasis also involves the regulation
of
blood pressure
and
blood glucose
levels,
homocystinuria A rare, inherited con-
dition caused by an
enzymie
deficiency.
Homocystinuria is a type of inborn error
of metabolism (see
metabolism
,
inborn
errors of)
in which there is an abnormal
presence of homocystine (an
amino
acid)
in the blood and urine. Affected
people are very tall, with long limbs and
fingers. Some have skeletal deformities
and abnormalities of the eye
lens.
The
condition is incurable but may be
improved by a special diet,
homosexuality Sexual attraction to peo-
ple of the same sex. (See also
bisexuality;
heterosexuality
.)
homozygote A term used to describe a
person whose cells contain 2 identical
alleles
controlling a specified inherited
trait. The cells of a
heterozygote
contain
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