HOUSEMAID'S KNEE
HURLER'S SYNDROME
housemaid's knee
Inflammation of the
bursa
that acts as a cushion over the
kneecap. The inflammation is usually
caused by prolonged kneeling but may
develop after a blow to the front of the
knee. (See also
bursitis.)
HPV
The abbreviation for
human papil-
lomavirus.
HRT
See
hormone replacement therapy.
5
HT
See
serotonin agonists; serotonin
antagonists.
human chorionic gonadotrophin
See
gonadotrophin, human chorionic
.
human genome
See
genome, human
.
human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
A
type of protein belonging to the group
known as
histocompatibility antigens,
which play a role in the
immune system
.
human papillomavirus
A type of
virus
that is responsible for
warts
and
genital
warts.
There are over 50 strains of human
papillomavirus. Infection with some of
these strains is thought to be a causative
factor in
cervical cancer
and anal cancer,
humerus
The bone of the upper arm. The
dome-shaped head of the bone lies at an
angle to the shaft and fits into a socket
in the scapula to form the shoulder
joint. Below its head, the bone narrows
to form a cylindrical shaft. It flattens
and widens at its lower end, forming a
prominence on each side called an
epi-
condyle.
At its base, it articulates with
the
ulna
and
radius
to form the elbow.
HUMERUS
humerus, fracture of
The
humerus
is
most commonly fractured at its neck
(the upper end of the shaft, below the
head), particularly in elderly people.
Fractures of the shaft occur in adults of
all ages. Fractures of the lower humerus
occur most commonly in children.
An
X-ray
can show a fracture of the
humerus. A fracture of the bone's neck
usually requires only a
sling
to immobi-
lize the bone; a fracture of the shaft or
lower bone normally needs a plaster
cast
.
Most fractures of the humerus heal
in
6-8
weeks.
humours
Liquid or jelly-like substances
in the body. The term humours usually
refers to the
aqueous humour
and
vit-
reous humour
that occur in the eye.
hunchback
See
kyphosis
.
hunger
A disagreeable feeling caused
by the need for food. Hunger occurs
when the stomach is empty and the
blood glucose level is low, often follow-
ing strenuous exercise. In response to
these stimuli, messages from the
hypo-
thalamus
cause the muscular stomach
wall to contract in a rhythmic manner;
these contractions, if they are pro-
nounced, produce hunger pains.
Hunger due to a low blood sugar level
can also occur in
thyrotoxicosis
, and in
diabetes mellitus
when an incorrect bal-
ance between insulin and carbohydrate
intake causes
hypoglycaemia.
Huntington's disease
An uncommon
disease in which degeneration of the
basal ganglia
results in
chorea
and
dem -
entia.
Symptoms of Huntington's disease
do not usually appear until age 35-50.
The disease is due to a defective
gene
and is inherited in an autosomal domi-
nant manner (see
genetic disorders).
The chorea usually affects the face,
arms, and trunk, resulting in random
grimaces and twitches, and clumsiness.
Dementia takes the form of irritability,
personality and behavioural changes,
memory loss, and apathy.
At present, there is no cure for Hunt-
ington's disease, and treatment is aimed
at reducing symptoms with drugs.
Hurler's syndrome
A rare, inherited
condition caused by an
enzyme
defect.
The syndrome is a type of inborn error
of metabolism (see
metabolism
,
inborn
H
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