reduce nausea in
also used in eye-drops to dilate the pupil
before an eye examination or surgery.
An injection of hyoscine hydrobromide
is often given as part of a
because it dries secretions in the mouth
and lungs. Possible adverse effects of
both forms include dry mouth, blurred
vision, drowsiness, and constipation.
A prefix meaning above, exces-
sive, or greater than normal.
A condition in which ex-
cess acid is produced by the stomach.
Hyperacidity is often confused with
It occurs in people
with a duodenal ulcer (see
A behaviour pattern in
which children are overactive and have
difficulty in concentrating. The occasional
occurrence of such behaviour in small
children is considered normal. However,
persistent hyperactivity is known as
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
which may require treatment.
An excessively sensitive
sense of hearing. In hyperacusis, expo-
sure to loud noises may cause pain or
discomfort in the ears.
A metabolic dis-
order caused by an overproduction of
excessive amounts of
intravenously or by stomach tube (see
hyperbaric oxygen treatment
od of increasing the amount of
in the tissues. This is achieved by plac-
ing a person in a special chamber and
exposing him or her to oxygen at a
much higher atmospheric pressure than
normal. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is
used to treat poisoning from
and in cases of gas
A raised blood
It may be undetectable
except by a blood test, but
occurs if the blood bilirubin rises to
twice the normal level.
An abnormally high
in the blood, commonly
may also cause hypercalcaemia, either
by spreading to bone or producing
abnormal hormones that cause bones
to release calcium. Less commonly, the
condition is a result of excessive intake
or of certain inflammatory
disorders, such as
Hypercalcaemia causes nausea, vom-
iting, lethargy, depression, thirst, and
passing urine excessively. Higher blood
levels of calcium produce confusion,
extreme fatigue, and muscle weakness.
Without treatment, the condition can re-
sult in cardiac
arrhythmias, kidney failure,
and even death. Long-standing
hypercalcaemia may cause
or kidney stones (see
Diagnosis is by
Treatment is of the underlying cause.
Excessive carbon dioxide
in the blood caused by failure of mech-
anisms, such as
normally control the carbon dioxide
levels in the blood. Hypercapnia leads
, which may cause
dehydration and weight loss. When the
condition occurs in pregnancy, it is
known as hyperemesis gravidarum.
An abnormally high
in the blood that occurs
in people with untreated or inadequately
mia may also occur in diabetics as a
result of an infection, stress, or surgery.
Features of the condition include passing
large amounts of urine, thirst,
. If severe, hyperglycaemia
may lead to confusion and
need emergency treatment with
Overactivity of the go-
) that results in
may be due to disorders of the gonads
or a disorder of the
results in overproduction of
. During childhood,
the condition causes precocious sexual
development and excessive growth.
may be localized (affecting only the arm-
pits, feet, palms, or face) or affect all
body areas supplied by