IATROGENIC
ILEUM
I
iatrogenic
A term meaning “physician-
produced”. It can be applied to any
medical condition, disease, or adverse
event resulting from medical treatment.
IBS
See
irritable bowel syndrome.
ibuprofen
A
nonsteroidal anti-inflamma-
tory drug
(NSAID) used as a painkiller
to treat conditions such as headache,
menstrual pain, and injury to soft tissues
(such as muscles and ligaments). The
drug's anti-inflammatory effect helps to
reduce the joint pain and stiffness that
occurs in types of
arthritis
.
Side effects
may include abdominal pain due to
inflammation of the stomach lining,
nausea, heartburn, and diarrhoea.
ice-packs
The means of applying ice to
the skin (in a towel or other material) in
order to relieve pain, stem bleeding, or
reduce inflammation. Cold causes the
blood vessels to contract, reducing blood
flow. Ice-packs are used to relieve pain
in a variety of disorders, including severe
headache
. They are used on sports
injuries to minimize swelling and bruis-
ing, and they also help to stop bleeding
from small vessels, as in a nosebleed.
ichthyosis
A rare, inherited condition
in which the skin is dry, thickened, scaly,
and darker than normal due to abnormal
production of
keratin
. It usually appears
at or shortly after birth and improves
during childhood. Commonly affected
areas are the thighs, arms, and backs of
the hands. Lubricants, emulsifying oint-
ments, and bath oils are helpful.
icterus
A term for
jaundice
.
ICSI
See
intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
id
One of the 3 parts of the personality
(together with the
ego
and
superego
)
described by Sigmund Freud. The id is
the primitive, unconscious energy store
from which come the instincts for food,
love, sex, and other basic needs. The id
seeks simply to gain pleasure and avoid
pain. (See also
psychoanalytic theory
.)
idiopathic
Of unknown cause. For exam-
ple, epilepsy with no apparent cause is
called idiopathic epilepsy.
idiopathic thrombocytopaenic pur-
pura (ITP)
An
autoimmune disorder
in
which
platelets
are destroyed, leading to
bleeding beneath the skin (see
purpura
).
ileitis, regional
An outdated name for
Crohn's disease.
ileostomy
An operation in which the
ileum
(lower part of the small intestine)
is cut and the end brought through the
abdominal wall and formed into an arti-
ficial opening called a stoma. Waste is
discharged from the remaining ileum
into a disposable bag (stoma bag) or
drained into a pouch made from the
end of the ileum and situated beneath
the skin (a procedure called a continent
ileostomy). In the latter, faeces draining
into the pouch are emptied regularly
through a soft catheter. An ileostomy
can be permanent or temporary.
Permanent ileostomy is usually perfor-
med on people with severe, uncontrolled
ulcerative colitis.
Temporary ileostomy is
sometimes done at the time of partial
colectomy
(removal of part of the colon)
to allow the colon to heal before waste
material passes through it. It may also be
done as an emergency treatment for an
obstruction in the intestine. The stoma
is created from a loop of the intestine
that is brought to the surface. (This is
later reversed by a
2
nd operation.)
During convalescence, patients are
given counselling and taught the practi-
cal aspects of stoma care or drainage of
continent ileostomies. Full recovery from
the operation takes about
6
weeks.
ileum
The final, longest, and narrowest
section of the small intestine. It is
joined at its upper end to the
jejunum
and at its lower end to the large intes-
tine (comprising the caecum, colon,
and rectum). The function of the ileum
is to absorb nutrients from food that
has been digested in the stomach and
the first
2
sections of the small intes-
tine (the
duodenum
and the jejunum).
Occasionally the ileum becomes ob-
structed, for example by pushing through
a weakness in the abdominal wall (see
hernia
) or by becoming caught up with
scar tissue following abdominal surgery
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