ILEUS, PARALYTIC
IMMOBILITY
(see
adhesion
).
Other disorders of the
ileum include
Meckel's diverticulum
and
diseases in which absorption of nutri-
ents
is
impaired,
such
as
Crohn's
disease, coeliac disease,
tropical
sprue,
and
fysmphoma.
ILEUM
ileus, p aralytic A failure, usually tem-
porary, of the normal contractility of the
muscles of the intestine. Paralytic ileus
commonly follows abdominal surgery
and may also be induced by severe
abdominal injury,
peritonitis
,
internal
bleeding, acute
pancreatitis
,
or interfer-
ence with the blood or nerve supply to
the
intestine.
Symptoms
include
a
swollen abdomen, vomiting, and failure
to pass faeces. The condition is treated
by resting the intestine. A tube passed
through the nose or mouth into the
stomach or intestine removes accumu-
lated fluids and keeps the stomach
empty. Body fluid levels are maintained
by
intravenous infusion
(drip).
ilium
The largest of the hip-bones that
form part of the
pelvis
.
illness
Perception by a person that he
or she is not well. Illness is a subjective
sensation; it may have physical or
psychological causes. The term is also
used to mean disease or disorder.
illusion
A distorted sensation based on
misinterpretation of a real stimulus (for
example, a pen is seen as a dagger). It is
differs from a
hallucination,
in which a
perception occurs without any stimulus.
Usually, illusions are brief and can be
understood when explained. They may
be due to tiredness or anxiety, to drugs,
or to forms of brain damage.
Delirium
tremens
is a classic inducer of illusions.
imaging techniques
Techniques that
produce images of structures within the
body. The most commonly used and
simplest techniques are
X-rays
(to view
dense structures such as bone) and
contrast X-rays, in which a medium, such
as barium, that is opaque to X-rays is
introduced into the body.
Contrast
X-ray techniques include
barium X-ray
examinations
(used to examine the
oesophagus, the stomach and the small
intestine);
cholecystography
(used to vis-
ualize the gallbladder and common bile
duct);
bronchography
(to view the air-
ways connecting the windpipe to the
lungs);
angiography
and
venography
(to
provide images of the blood vessels);
intravenous urography
(to visualize the
kidneys and urinary tract); and
ERCP
(by which the pancreatic duct and bil-
iary system are examined).
Many X-ray imaging techniques have
been superseded by newer procedures.
These include
ultrasound scanning
,
MRI
(magnetic resonance imaging),
PET scan-
ning
, and
radionuclide scanning
. However,
X-rays are used in
CT scanning.
Some of
these techniques use computers to pro-
cess the raw imaging data and produce
the actual image. Others can produce im-
ages without a computer, although one
may be used to enhance the image.
imipramine
A tricyclic
antidepressant
drug
most commonly used as a long-
term treatment for
depression
.
Possible
adverse effects include excessive sweat-
ing, blurred vision, dizziness, dry mouth,
constipation, nausea, and, in older men,
difficulty passing urine.
immersion foot
A type of
cold injury
,
also called trench foot, occurring when
the feet are wet and cold for a long
time. Initially, the feet turn pale and
have no detectable pulse; later, they
become red, swollen, and painful. If the
condition is ignored, muscle weakness,
skin ulcers, or
gangrene
may develop.
immobility
Reduced physical activity,
for example, through disease, injury, or
following major surgery. Immobility is
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