ANAEMIA, PERNICIOUS
ANAESTHESIA, GENERAL
Many people with mild megaloblastic
anaemia have no symptoms. Others
may experience tiredness, headaches, a
sore mouth and tongue, and mild
jaun-
dice.
If B
|2
deficiency continues for a
long time, additional symptoms due to
nerve damage, including numbness and
tingling in the feet, may develop.
Megaloblastic anaemia is diagnosed
by
blood tests
and a
bone marrow biopsy.
Megaloblastic anaemia due to poor diet
can be remedied with a short course of
vitamin B|2 injections or folic acid tab-
lets and the introduction of a normal
diet. A lifelong course of vitamin B !2
injections
or
folic
acid
tablets
is
required if the underlying cause of mal-
absorption is unbeatable.
anaemia, pernicious See
anaemia, m eg-
aloblastic.
anaerobic Capable of living, function-
ing, and growing without oxygen. Many
bacteria are anaerobic. Some human
body cells are capable of limited anaer-
obic activity. When muscular exertion is
so strenuous that oxygen is used faster
than the blood circulation can supply it,
such as during sprinting, muscle cells
temporarily work anaerobically. When
this happens, lactic acid is produced as
waste (instead of the carbon dioxide
from
aerobic
activity), sometimes causing
muscle fatigue and pain,
anaesthesia Absence of all sensation;
insensibility. The term most commonly
refers to anaesthesia that is induced
artificially for medical purposes. Two
types of anaesthesia are used: local
(see
anaesthesia, local)
and general (see
anaesthesia, general).
Damage to nerve tissues by injury or
disease can produce anaesthesia in a
localized area.
anaesthesia, dental Loss of sensation
induced in a patient to prevent pain
during dental treatment.
For minor procedures, a local anaes-
thetic (see
anaesthesia, local)
is injected
either into the gum at the site being
treated or into the nerve a short dis-
tance away (called a peripheral
nerve
block).
In addition, topical anaesthetics
are often used on the gums. For more
complicated procedures, such as perio-
dontal
(gum)
surgery
and
multiple
tooth extractions, general anaesthesia
is carried out (see
anaesthesia, general).
anaesthesia, general Loss of sensation
and consciousness induced to prevent
the perception of pain throughout the
ANAESTHESIA, GENERAL
Monitor displays heart-
rate, blood pressure, and
oxygen levels in blood
Anaesthetist
records vital signs
and drugs used
Flow, concentration, and
mixture of gases are regulated
by anaesthetic machine
Endotracheal tube
delivers gases to patient
ECG leads on the
chest connect to monitor
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