INDIGESTION
INFANT MORTALITY
indigestion
A common term (known
medically as dyspepsia) covering a var-
iety of symptoms brought on by eating,
including
heartburn,
abdominal pain,
nausea,
and
flatulence.
Discomfort in
the upper abdomen is often caused by
eating too much, too quickly, or by eat-
ing very rich, spicy, or fatty foods.
Persistent or recurrent indigestion may
be due to a
peptic ulcer, gallstones, oes-
ophagitis,
or, rarely,
stomach cancer.
Antacid drugs
help relieve symptoms,
but they can mask an underlying cause
that needs medical attention. They
should not be taken for longer than
2
weeks without medical advice.
indometacin
A
nonsteroidal anti-inflam-
matory drug
(NSAID) used to relieve
pain, stiffness, and inflammation in dis-
orders such as
osteoarthritis
,
rheumatoid
arthritis
, and
tendinitis
. It is also pre-
scribed to relieve pain caused by injury
to soft tissues, such as muscles and lig-
aments. Side effects include abdominal
pain, nausea, heartburn, headache, dizzi-
ness, and increased risk of
peptic ulcer
.
induction of labour
Use of artificial
means to initiate childbirth when the
health of the mother or baby would be at
risk if pregnancy continued. The most
common reason for inducing labour is
that the pregnancy has continued past
the estimated delivery date, which increas-
es the chance of complications during
childbirth. Other reasons for induction
are
pre-eclampsia, Rhesus incompatibility
,
or
intrauterine growth retardation
.
Differ-
ent methods of induction are used,
depending on the stage of labour: a
prostaglandin
pessary may be inserted
into the vagina to encourage the cervix
to open; if the cervix is already open, the
membranes containing the fetus may be
ruptured; or the hormone
oxytocin
may
be given intravenously to stimulate
uterine contractions.
industrial diseases
See
occupational
disease and injury
.
infant
A term usually applied to a baby
up to the age of
12
months.
infantile spasms
A rare type of recur-
rent seizure, also called progressive
myoclonic encephalopathy or salaam
attacks, that affects babies. The condi-
tion is a form of
epilepsy
and occurs
most commonly from 4-9 months of age.
Spasms may occur hundreds of times a
day, each lasting a few seconds. These
seizures are usually a sign of brain dam-
age; affected babies usually have severe
developmental delay
.
infant mortality
The number of infants
who die during the
1
st year of life per
1,000
live births, usually expressed as
per year. About 2 in 3 of all infant
deaths occur during the neonatal period
(the 1st month of life). Most of those
who die are very premature (born before
the 30th week of pregnancy) or have
severe birth defects.
INDUCTION OF LABOUR
Closed
cervix
Amniotic
Fetus
fluid
Hand guiding hook
Cervix
Placenta
w
1
^
&
afnnoo
....
Prostaglandin
pessary softens
the cervix
Membranes
fetus
PROSTAGLANDIN PESSARY
RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES
305
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