INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
INGUINAL HERNIA
INFLAMMATION
White cell
White blood
Inflamed
other
autoimmune disorders
)
may be
suppressed by
corticosteroid drugs
or by
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
inflammatory bowel disease
A collec-
tive term for chronic disorders affecting
the small and/or large intestine that
cause abdominal pain, bleeding, and
diarrhoea.
Crohn's disease
and
ulcera-
tive colitis
are the most common types
of inflammatory bowel disease.
influenza
A viral infection of the respira-
tory tract (air passages), typically causing
fever, headache, muscle ache, and weak-
ness. Popularly known as “flu”, it is
spread by infected droplets from coughs
or sneezes. Influenza usually occurs in
small outbreaks or every few years in
epidemics. There are 3 main types of
influenza virus: A, B, and C. A person who
has had an attack caused by the type C
virus acquires
antibodies
that provide
immunity against type C for life. Infec-
tion with a strain of type A or B virus
produces immunity to that particular
strain. However, type A and B viruses
are capable of altering to produce new
strains: type A has been the cause of
pandemics
in the last century.
Types A and B produce classic flu
symptoms; type C causes a mild illness
that is indistinguishable from a common
cold. The illness usually clears up com-
pletely within 7-10 days. Rarely, flu takes
a severe form, causing acute
pneumonia
that may be fatal within a day or
2
even
in healthy young adults. Type B infec-
tions in children sometimes mimic
appendicitis
, and they have been impli-
cated in
Reye's syndrome
.
In the elderly
and those with lung or heart disease,
influenza may be followed by a bacterial
infection such as
bronchitis
or pneumonia.
Analgesic drugs
(painkillers) help to
relieve aches and pains and reduce fever.
The antiviral drug amantadine may be
given if the person is elderly or has
another lung condition.
Antibiotic drugs
may be used to combat secondary bac-
terial infection.
Flu vaccines, containing killed strains
of the types A and B virus currently in
circulation, are available, but have only
a 60-70 per cent success rate. Immunity
is short-lived, and vaccination (recom-
mended for older people and anyone
suffering from respiratory or circulatory
disease) must be repeated annually.
infra-red
A term denoting the part of the
electromagnetic spectrum immediately
beyond the red end of the visible light
spectrum. Directed onto the skin, infra-red
radiation heats the skin and the tissues
immediately below it. An infra-red lamp
is one means of giving
heat treatment
.
infusion, intravenous
See
intravenous
infusion
.
ingestion
The act of taking any sub-
stance (for example, food, drink, or
medications) into the body through the
mouth. The term also refers to the pro-
cess by which certain cells (for example,
some white blood cells) surround and
then engulf small particles.
ingrowing toenail
See
toenail, ingrow-
ing
.
inguinal
Relating to the groin (the area
between the abdomen and thigh), as in
inguinal hernia
.
inguinal hernia
A type of
hernia
in
which part of the intestine protrudes
through the abdominal wall in the
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