INTELLIGENCE TESTS
INTENSIVE CARE
ideas and symbols); practical (aptitude
in dealing with practical problems such
as repairing machinery); and social (cop-
ing reasonably and wisely with human
relationships). Intelligence increases up
to the age of about
6
years and then
stabilizes. Intelligence quotient (IQ), as
measured by
intelligence tests,
continues
to increase to about the age of 26, stays
the same until about the age of 40, and
then gradually declines. Intelligence is
partly inherited, although environment
also plays a major part, as does physi-
cal health and personality.
Extremes of intelligence occur in
learn-
ing difficulties
(defined by a low IQ) and in
the gifted (defined by scores over 140).
intelligence tests
Tests designed to pro-
vide an estimate of a person's mental
abilities. The most widely used are Wech-
sler tests of which there are
2
basic
types: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Intelli-
gence Scale for Children (WISC). Each
is divided into verbal (concerned with
language
skills)
and
performance
sections, including measures of con-
structional ability and visual-spatial and
perceptual
ability
(interpretation
of
shapes). Other tests include the Stan-
ford-Binet test, which is used mainly as a
measure of scholastic ability.
In most intelligence tests, scoring is
based on mental age (MA) in relation to
chronological age (CA). The intelligence
quotient (IQ) is MA divided by CA, multi-
plied by 100. The tests are devised to
ensure that 3 in 4 people have an IQ bet-
ween 80 and 120. They are standardized
so that the score indicates the same rel-
ative ability at different age levels.
Intelligence tests may be used to assess
school or job aptitude. However, they
have been criticized for their alleged
bias regarding gender and race.
intensive care
Constant close moni-
toring and treatment of seriously ill
patients that enables treatment to be
tailored to the patient's condition on an
hour-by-hour basis. Intensive care units
INTENSIVE CARE
ECG electrodes
detect electrical
activity of heart
Pulse
oximeter to
measure
blood oxygen
levels
Ventilator
Intravenous
fluids
Drug
therapy
Monitor displays
blood pressure
and heart rate
measurements
Suction
Oxygen
equipment to
supply
clear airways
Adjustable
height bed
Ventilator
Nutrients
312
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