INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION
A treatment for male infertility in
which a single sperm is collected from a
sample of semen and used to fertilize an
in vitro (see
in vitro fertilization
The ovum is then placed in the uterus.
A term to describe any condi-
tion that does not respond to treatment.
A medical term meaning
into or within the upper layers of the
skin. An intradermal injection is made
into the skin; whereas a
is made under the skin.
A medical term meaning
within a muscle, as in an intramuscular
injection, in which a drug is injected
deep within a muscle.
The pressure with-
in the eye that helps to maintain the
shape of the eyeball, due to the balance
between the rate of production and
removal of aqueous
humour is continually produced from
and exits from the
drainage angle (a network of tissue be-
tween the iris and cornea). If drainage is
impeded, intraocular pressure builds up
(a condition known as
). If the
ciliary body is damaged (as a result of
less fluid is produced and
the eye becomes soft.
intrauterine growth re-
Poor growth in
a fetus, usually resulting
from a failure of the
to provide adequate
nutrients (often related to
times from a fetal defect.
Severe maternal disease,
such as chronic
, can reduce fetal
growth. Fetal problems
such as an intrauterine in-
can also impair growth.
nancy may reduce fetal
growth and birth weight.
Intrauterine growth retar-
dation may be suspected
may be performed
to assess the problem. The underlying
cause is treated, if possible. If the baby's
growth is slowing,
induction of labour
may be necessary.
Most babies whose growth was retarded
in the uterus gain weight rapidly after
delivery. However, if an intrauterine infec-
tion or genetic disorder was the cause,
poor growth may continue.
A term meaning within a
vein, as in intravenous infusion (slow
introduction of a substance into a vein)
and intravenous injection (rapid intro-
duction of a substance into a vein).
The slow intro-
duction, over hours or days, of fluid into
the bloodstream through a cannula (thin
plastic tube) inserted into a vein. Com-
monly known as a drip, an intravenous
injection is used to give blood (see
) or, more commonly, fluids
and essential salts. Other uses include
providing nutrients to people unable to
digest food (see
the administration of certain drugs.
An X-ray pro-
cedure, commonly abbreviated to IVU,
used to give a clear image of the