INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION
INTRAVENOUS UROGRAPHY
intracytoplasmic
sperm
injection
(ICSI)
A treatment for male infertility in
which a single sperm is collected from a
sample of semen and used to fertilize an
ovum
in vitro (see
in vitro fertilization
).
The ovum is then placed in the uterus.
intractable
A term to describe any condi-
tion that does not respond to treatment.
intradermal
A medical term meaning
into or within the upper layers of the
skin. An intradermal injection is made
into the skin; whereas a
subcutaneous
injection
is made under the skin.
intramuscular
A medical term meaning
within a muscle, as in an intramuscular
injection, in which a drug is injected
deep within a muscle.
intraocular pressure
The pressure with-
in the eye that helps to maintain the
shape of the eyeball, due to the balance
between the rate of production and
removal of aqueous
humour
.
Aqueous
humour is continually produced from
the
ciliary body
and exits from the
drainage angle (a network of tissue be-
tween the iris and cornea). If drainage is
impeded, intraocular pressure builds up
(a condition known as
glaucoma
). If the
ciliary body is damaged (as a result of
prolonged inflammation),
less fluid is produced and
the eye becomes soft.
intrauterine contracep-
tive device
See
IUD
.
intrauterine growth re-
tardation
Poor growth in
a fetus, usually resulting
from a failure of the
pla-
centa
to provide adequate
nutrients (often related to
pre-eclampsia
)
or some-
times from a fetal defect.
Severe maternal disease,
such as chronic
kidney
failure
, can reduce fetal
growth. Fetal problems
such as an intrauterine in-
fection or
genetic disorder
can also impair growth.
Smoking
during
preg-
nancy may reduce fetal
growth and birth weight.
Intrauterine growth retar-
dation may be suspected
on
antenatal
examination;
ultrasound scanning
may be performed
to assess the problem. The underlying
cause is treated, if possible. If the baby's
growth is slowing,
induction of labour
or
a
caesarean section
may be necessary.
Most babies whose growth was retarded
in the uterus gain weight rapidly after
delivery. However, if an intrauterine infec-
tion or genetic disorder was the cause,
poor growth may continue.
intravenous
A term meaning within a
vein, as in intravenous infusion (slow
introduction of a substance into a vein)
and intravenous injection (rapid intro-
duction of a substance into a vein).
intravenous infusion
The slow intro-
duction, over hours or days, of fluid into
the bloodstream through a cannula (thin
plastic tube) inserted into a vein. Com-
monly known as a drip, an intravenous
injection is used to give blood (see
blood
transfusion
) or, more commonly, fluids
and essential salts. Other uses include
providing nutrients to people unable to
digest food (see
feeding, artificial
) and
the administration of certain drugs.
intravenous urography
An X-ray pro-
cedure, commonly abbreviated to IVU,
used to give a clear image of the
urinary
INTRAVENOUS UROGRAPHY
Adjustable
arm
X-ray
table
X-ray source
Beam of
X-rays
Drawer
containing
X-ray film
316
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