KALA-AZAR
KERATOACANTHOMA
kala-azar
A form of
leishmaniasis
that
is spread by insects. Kala-azar occurs
in parts of Africa, India, the Mediter-
ranean, and South America.
kaolin
An
aluminium
compound used
as an ingredient in some
antidiarrhoeal
drugs.
Kaolin is taken orally and in-
creases the bulk of faeces. It is also
believed to adsorb
bacteria
,
viruses
,
and
toxins
in the intestine, transporting
them through the digestive tract for
excretion in the faeces.
Kaposi's sarcoma
A cancerous tumour
arising from blood vessels, usually in
the skin. Kaposi's sarcoma usually only
occurs in those people who have
AIDS
.
The tumours, which consist of pinkish-
brown raised areas or flat patches, can
spread rapidly. They usually start on the
feet and ankles, spread up the legs, and
then appear on the hands and arms.
KAPOSI'S SARCOMA
Flat sarcoma
Raised sarcoma
Tumours can also affect the gastroin-
testinal and respiratory tracts, where they
may cause severe internal bleeding. Skin
lesions may be treated with
radiotherapy
.
Anticancer drugs
may be used for wide-
spread skin disease or internal lesions.
karyotype
The characteristics of
chro-
mosomes
, in terms of number, size, and
structure, in an individual or a species.
The term “karyotype” is also applied to a
diagram of chromosome pairs arranged
in their assigned numerical order.
Kawasaki disease
A rare acute illness
of unknown cause that most commonly
affects children under 2. The disease is
characterized by fever lasting
1 - 2
weeks,
conjunctivitis
, dryness and cracking of
the lips, swollen
lymph nodes
in the neck,
reddening of the palms and soles, and a
generalized rash. By the end of the 2nd
week of illness, the skin at the tips of
the fingers and toes peels and other
symptoms subside. The heart muscle
and
coronary arteries
are affected in
about 1
in 5 cases. High dose
gamma-
globulin
and
aspirin
may be given to
prevent associated heart complications.
Most children recover completely.
keloid
A raised, hard, irregularly shaped,
itchy scar on the skin due to a defective
healing process in which too much
colla-
gen
is produced, usually after a skin
injury. Keloids can develop anywhere on
the body, but the breastbone and shoul-
der are common sites. Black people are
affected more than whites. After several
months, most keloids flatten and cease
to itch. Injection of
corticosteroid drugs
into the keloid may reduce itchiness
more quickly and cause some shrinkage.
keratin
A fibrous
protein
that is the
main constituent of the tough outer-
most layer of the
skin, nails,
and
hair
k eratitis Inflammation of the
cornea.
It
often takes the form of a
corneal ulcer
and may result from injury, contact with
chemicals, or an infection. Symptoms of
keratitis include pain and excessive
watering of the eye, blurring of vision,
and
photophobia.
Noninfective keratitis
is treated by covering the affected eye.
Drugs such as
antibiotics
may be given
to treat infective keratitis,
k eratoacan thom a A type of harmless
skin nodule that commonly occurs in
elderly people, most often on the face
or arm. The cause is unknown, but many
years of exposure to strong sunlight or
long-term use of
immunosuppressant
drugs
may be factors. Initially, the nod-
ule resembles a small wart, but it grows
to
1
-
2
cm across in about
8
weeks.
Although the nodule usually disappears
gradually after this, surgical removal is
often recommended to prevent scarring.
K
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